Paul Nervy Notes
“Jokes, poems, stories, and a lot of philosophy, psychology, and sociology.”

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Economics.  ---  .See also: Business.  ---  8/2/2001

Economics.  ---  .This section is about economics.  Topics include: ( ) Ecology and economics.  ( ) Economic systems.  Capitalism, Socialism, Communism.  ( ) History, current, future.  ( ) Ideal, problems, techniques.  ( ) Macro.  ( ) Micro.  ( ) Makework.  ( ) Markets.  ( ) Methods.  ( ) Money.  ( ) Philosophy of economics.  ---  1/24/2006

Economics.  ---  (1) How much money do you need to live?  Enough for food, clothing, shelter, medicine, education, raise kids, retire.  Living well simply vs. living well excessively.  (2) How much stuff do you need to live?  (3) How much time do you need (to do Notes)?  ---  6/18/1998

Economics.  ---  (1) Population growth vs. economy growth.  Growth in size vs. development in terms of  technological advances and variety (diversity).  (2) Fairness and corruption of economic system.  (3) Efficiency and waste of the economic system.  ---  10/25/1997

Economics.  ---  (1) Produced: what, how much.  (2) Used up: what resources, how much of each, and total.  (3) Money: made, lost how much, total and for each product.  (4) Bought and sold: how much of what.  ---  12/30/1992

Economics.  ---  At what point does the system grow, stagnate and decay?  The government sets the business ethical system when it creates business law.  How well people follow the law, and how well you can enforce the law is another thing.  ---  01/01/1993

Economics.  ---  Basic economic questions.  (1) What is being made?  Who is making it?  What resources are being used to make it?  What pollution is created in the making and using of the product?  (2) What is being sold and bought?  What is the selling price?  What is the cost to manufacture?  What is the profit?  Who gets the profit?  (3) Who owns what?  (4) Who is working?  Who is employed?  Who is self employed?  Who is employed by others?  How much are they being paid?  ---  2/10/2005

Economics.  ---  Buy blue.  (1) Buy goods and services from companies that display progressive values.  (2) Buy goods and services from progressives, democrats, liberals, socialists, greens.  (3) Buy goods and services from women and minorities.  ---  3/15/2007

Economics.  ---  Cheapness and frugality vs. productivity and development.  If being cheap interferes with production and development, it ain't worth it.  Frugality and cheapness can impede productivity and development.  ---  12/30/1992

Economics.  ---  Computers, Internet and economics.  (1) Computers and economics.  How have computers changed the economy?  (A) Computers have increased the speed of reaction times.  (B) Computers have increased the scale of businesses.  (C) Computers have made possible economies of scale, mergers and national chains.  (D) Computer inventory made possible the superstore.  (2) Internet and economics.  Internet economy.  How does Internet economy differ from what came before?  Have the rules changed?  Have all the rules completely changed, or just some rules changed a little?  (A) Middleman is reduced or eliminated when people can shop online.  Travel agents.  Stock brokers.  Retailers.  People can book their own travel.  People can trade their own stocks.  People can order factory direct. (B) Less bound by geography and physical space.  (C) Less bound by time.  Quicker.  (D) Access to wider range of goods.  Example, Amazon has many more books than a small book shop.  (E) Bigger "used" market.  Example, ebay.  ---  7/20/2004

Economics.  ---  Computers, Internet and economics.  (1) Disintermediation (eliminate the middleman).  (2) Mass-customization.  (3) Faster.  (4) JIT (just-in-time inventory).  (5) More choices for consumer.  (6) Level playing field for small business visa vie large business.  (7) Collapsed space.  (8) International.  ---  3/15/2000

Economics.  ---  Computers, Internet and economics.  Effect of computers on economics and business.  (1) Jobs moving overseas.  (2) Intellectual property issues.  Free software and content.  (3) E-commerce.  Internet business.  (4) Information economy, not services or industry.  ---  11/2/2003

Economics.  ---  Conspicuous consumption (consuming for status) is insane in a world of limited resources.  Voluntary simplicity is better for the environment.  Your self worth does not depend on stuff and money.  If you believe that it does, then you are set up for crisis, because at some point in your life money and stuff fail to satisfy.  Just as important as money and stuff are quality of life issues such as education (knowledge), justice, health and love.  ---  7/21/1998

Economics.  ---  Consumer society.  People buy things to try to add meaning to their lives.  People buy things to try to get happy.  People buy things because everyone else has it.  People buy things because someone, like an advertiser, told them to buy it.  ---  5/1/2006

Economics.  ---  Cost of living.  (1) If the cost of living is too high then people are compelled to take a second and third job, working seven days a week, twelve hours a day, which is unfair.  (2) If the cost of living is too high then people cannot afford a place to live.  (3) If the cost of living is too high then people are compelled to take jobs that support an unjust economic system that oppresses workers.  (4) The cost of living is too high when wages are too low.  Wages are too low when employers keep too much profits for themselves.  Wages are too low when employers refuse to pay their workers a living wage.  ---  7/31/2006

Economics.  ---  Criticism of capitalism.  The pursuit of money as if money is the only thing that matters, that is a bad thing.  The pursuit of money as if money is the most important thing, that is bad thing.  The pursuit of money as if whatever makes the most money is best, that is a bad thing.  The pursuit of money as if it will be okay if everyone mindlessly pursues money, that is a bad thing.  ---  1/16/2006

Economics.  ---  Criticism of the rich.  If every person worked at the same pay rate per hour, and if there was no such thing as inheritance, then there might be some shred of credibility to the claim by the rich that the poor are poor because the poor do not work enough.  However, when people work at vastly different pay rates per hour, and when there is such a thing as inheritance, then the claim by the rich that the poor are poor out of laziness is simply ridiculous.  ---  1/10/2006

Economics.  ---  Criticism of the rich.  The rich get rich by exploiting other people.  The rich get rich at the expense of other people.  The rich get rich off the work of other people.  (2) It is wrong for one person to be so rich.  Nobody needs that much money.  (3) Its a mistake to view getting rich as the sole goal of life.  Its a mistake to view getting rich as the best thing in life.  Money is not everything.  Monetary riches does not equal success.  ---  1/1/2006

Economics.  ---  Criticisms of free market capitalism.  Making whatever people desire does not take into account addiction and the poor judgment of consumers.  ---  11/15/2005

Economics.  ---  Critique of business.  (1) Americans over-consume.  (2) Businesses are money-hungry, unthinking, capitalist pigs.  (3) Green business is the way to go.  Fair Trade is the way to go.  ---  3/30/2007

Economics.  ---  Critique of capitalism.  Capitalism's bogus views: Sell your labor to the highest bidder.  Sell yourself to the highest bidder.  Do whatever job pays the most, regardless of whether it is useful or not, and regardless of whether you enjoy it or not, and regardless of whether it is ethical or not, and regardless of whether it helps the world or not.  ---  1/1/2006

Economics.  ---  Critique of corporations.  Corporatism is bad.  Corporatism is a nation run by and for the corporations, and that is a bad thing.  Corporatism exploits workers, customers, the general public, and the environment.  The corporations exploit workers by refusing to pay workers a living wage, while at the same time making increasing corporate profits.  The corporations have too much power and money.  Corporations try to undermine the labor movement, the environmental movement, the consumer rights movement, and other social justice movements.  ---  2/19/2007

Economics.  ---  Critique of economics.  The standard economic statistics (for example, GDP, inflation, etc.) do not describe whether a nation is moving toward social justice and environmental sustainability.  Economics is not everything.  ---  1/10/2006

Economics.  ---  Critique of money.  Defenses of not trying to be rich.  Live minimally.  Live simply.  Money is evil.  Money causes people to act evil.  Money is a form of power, and power corrupts.  Money causes greed.  Greed is not good.  Sharing is good.  Share your time and your money.  ---  1/27/2007

Economics.  ---  Critique of rich people.  (1) The rich are greedy pigs.  The rich hoard money.  The rich over-consume material possessions.  (2) The rich are status seekers.  The rich want to show off.  The rich desire popularity.  The rich are thus shallow.  (3) The rich make money by exploiting poor workers.  The rich oppress the poor.  (4) The rich worship money.  The rich value money above all.  The rich think money is the ultimate value.  (5) The rich get rich by selling useless junk to poor people who cannot afford to waste their money.  (6) The rich are usually conservatives, republicans.  (7) The rich are selfish.  The rich are egoists.  The rich only care about themselves.  (8) The rich create a playing field that favors their own self interests.  The rich use their money and power to gain even more money and power.  (9) The rich look down on the poor.  The rich exploit the poor and then tell the poor that its their own fault that they are poor.  (10) The rich are a bunch of sell outs.  The rich gave up trying to solve the problems of the world and decided to just make money.  (11) The rich do not care about the environment.  The rich do not care about social justice.  (12) The rich try to justify their greed by claiming that money means success, or that money means moral goodness, or that they are helping the economy, but their lies and lame excuses ring hollow.   ---  6/13/2007

Economics.  ---  Critique of the rich.  (1) The rich get rich from exploiting the poor.  (2) The rich spend their riches on useless extravagances instead of giving their money to the poor.  (3) The rich worship money.  Some rich people do anything to get money.  ---  3/30/2007

Economics.  ---  Critique of the rich.  The rich get rich through the work of the poor.  The rich get rich from the sweat of underpaid workers.  ---  3/30/2007

Economics.  ---  Critique of wealth, money, riches.  (1) Do not take more than you need.  Do not hoard.  Do not be greedy.  Do not waste resources.  Do not buy more than you need.  (2) Do not spend all your life working for money.  Do not make money your ultimate value.  (3) Do not become obsessed with material possessions.  Material possessions begin to clutter your life.  Material possessions begin to own you.  (4) Do not be so anxious about your survival that you spend all your time thinking about yourself.  Do not fall prey to egoism.  ---  1/27/2007

Economics.  ---  Critiques of capitalism.  (1) Conservatives want to privatize everything and that is a mistake.  Public works projects are important.  (2) Conservatives want to deregulate everything and that is a mistake.  Regulation, aka law, is essential for civilization to function.  (3) Completely free markets are a mistake because completely free markets mean complete privitization and deregulation, and that means no laws to protect the rights of workers, consumers and the general public.  ---  10/12/2005

Economics.  ---  Critiques of capitalism.  Addiction leads consumers to want things that they do not need.  Greed leads producers to make the things that feed human addictions.  Addiction and greed are the engines of a bogus economy.  One could argue that the current US economy is a bogus economy.  ---  10/12/2005

Economics.  ---  Critiques of capitalism.  The flaw of capitalism.  The best things in life are free.  The most important things in life are free.  Yet pure capitalism says everything must have a price and everything must be privately owned.  Pure capitalism says nothing can be free of charge and nothing can be shared or publically owned.  Pure capitalism is bogus.  ---  3/13/2005

Economics.  ---  Critiques of the free market.  (1) In a completely free market everything is for sale.  Child labor.  Heroin.  Machine guns.  Human organs.  Human slavery.  That is a bad way to live.  (2) In a completely free market there is no protection of minority rights.  That is bad.  A tyranny of the majority should not trample minority rights.  (3) Free markets head towards the lowest common denominator.  Its like commercial television, it sucks.  (4) Completely free markets tend to sell useless junk and noxious garbage.  For example, junk food.  The people deserve laws to protect investors, consumers and the general public.  (5) Completely free markets, devoid of any regulation, is a state of lawlessness.  A state of lawlessness is not justice.  (6) Conservatives often claim to be for free markets, capitalism and pure competition.  Completely free markets are a bad idea.  Pure capitalism is a bad idea.  Pure competition is a bad idea.  Not everything in life is a competition.  (7) Human rights, as exemplified in the International Declaration of Human Rights, are not something that you have to compete for and get if you win and do not get if you lose.  Human rights are guaranteed by just societies.  Human rights are a form of basic, socially imposed equality.  Human rights are a good idea.  ---  9/2/2005

Economics.  ---  Critiques of the free market.  Money is not the only measure, nor the best measure, of the value of things.  ---  9/11/2005

Economics.  ---  Critiques of the free market.  The free market does a poor job determining the value of things.  In times of fads and frenzy, people will pay unjustifiably high prices for one item while another item will go for an unjustifiably low price.  For example, the tulip bulb craze.  ---  9/11/2005

Economics.  ---  Critques of capitalism.  (1) A manufacturer might produce either useless or hurtful products.  A consumer might purchase useless or hurtful products.  (2) A manufacturer might produce goods at the expense of the environment and workers.  Consumers might purchase items at the expense of the environment and workers.  (3) It is regulation, in the form of laws, that prevent abuses by businesses.  ---  10/12/2005

Economics.  ---  Ecological economics would account fully for all resources consumed and for all waste produced in the production, distribution and consumption of goods, services and information.  ---  11/15/2001

Economics.  ---  Ecology and economics.  Americans consume too much material goods, and produce too much pollution and garbage.  Americans consume too much nonrenewable energy, in the form of oil.  Americans need to be more ecologically sustainable.  Americans consume too much in general, in the form of big houses, big cars, etc.  Americans are 5% of the world population and consume 25% of world resources.  ---  10/1/2005

Economics.  ---  Ecology and economics.  Classical economic theory pays scant attention to the natural environment.  A true economics would account for human impact on the natural environment.  A true economics would account for the use of non-renewable resources.  A true economics would account for the creation of pollution.  ---  8/14/2004

Economics.  ---  Ecology and economics.  Ecology must be included in the economic equation.  ---  3/29/2002

Economics.  ---  Ecology and economics.  Most economists only consider money.  They see money as the sole value.  They measure everything in terms of money.  Economics is more than that.  Economics needs to consider the entire environment, all the factors in the environment, including all resources and all waste.  ---  2/28/2002

Economics.  ---  Ecology and economics.  Pollution and economics.  Supply and demand.  Pollution decreases the supply of clean air, water and land.  Overpopulation increases the demand for clean air, water and land.  Overpopulation also increases the amount of pollution.  ---  12/20/2003

Economics.  ---  Economic class.  Most people are "working class" and yet don't really think so.  ---  5/5/2007

Economics.  ---  Economic development.  For the topic of economic development, see the section on International development.  ---  6/10/2007

Economics.  ---  Economic systems, critiques of.  Capitalism is a flawed economic system.  Free markets are not the answer.  Regulation is needed.  ---  3/30/2007

Economics.  ---  Economic systems.  (1) Factors, forces, mechanisms.  (2) Types.  Theoretical vs. actual.  Young vs. old.  Simple vs. complex.  Small vs. big.  (3) Size and complexity.  Number of people.  Number of types of things made.  Number of individual things made.  Number of ways traded.  Number of transactions.  ---  12/30/1992

Economics.  ---  Economic systems.  Capitalism.  Criticisms of free market capitalism.  (1) A completely free market is unethical.  No one should be completely free to make or sell anything that one wants to.  For example, it is wrong to make and sell nuclear weapons to whoever wants to buy them.  100% freedom is unethical.  No one should be free to go around killing people.  Laws limit what can be made and sold.  It is not, and should not be, a totally free market.  Total freedom is wrong.  ---  11/15/2005

Economics.  ---  Economic systems.  Capitalism.  The big questions: Free markets, to what degree do they work and not?  To what degree are they fair and not?  ---  2/24/2000

Economics.  ---  Economic systems.  Communism.  (1) Communism as an explanation of reality:  Economics is the basis of everything.  Political power and political control comes from money, and money comes from owning the factors of production.  Big money influences the political process.  What guards against this?  Anti-trust laws, unions and campaign finance reform.  (2) Communism as a criticism of pure capitalism (and a proposed solution):  Pure capitalism does not work.  Pure capitalism leads to the formation of monopolies which raise prices and exploit consumers.  Capitalism exploits workers.  Corporations can run amok if they acquire too much money and power.  Corporations can run amok if they do not have to answer to the public.  Corporate influence on politics can easily become excessive.  Corporations operating without bounds can easily lead to the destruction of the environment.  Under pure capitalism advertisers also run amok.  In a purely capitalistic society, anything is for sale.  (3) The point is that in actual societies: (A) Total freedom does not work.  (B) Zero government does not work.  (C) Zero taxes does not work.  ---  4/4/2000

Economics.  ---  Economic systems.  Criticism of three types of economic systems.     (I) Capitalism.  (A) Pro.  (1) Invisible hand of supply and demand is efficient at employing people.  (2) Efficient at producing what people want.  (3) Competition increases creativity.  (B) Contra.  (1) Exploits workers.  (2) Commercial advertising creates desires for unhealthy junk.  (3) Ruthless competition creates monopolies that become big, fat  and lazy (inefficient).  (4) Plight of Commons.  Either all is  privatized, or else public lands suffer.  See regulation vs. deregulation, and nationalization vs. privatization.     (II) Socialism.  (A) Pro.  (1) Some government agencies (NEH, NIS, NEA) and corporations (PBS) are good.  (2) Some government ownership of land is good, like national parks.  (3) Welfare state.  Get poor back on feet.  Medicare, Social Security.  (4) New Deal.  Government use of economic levers, like fiscal and monetary policy, now commonly accepted.  (B) Contra. ?     (III) Communism.  (A) Pro.  (1) From each according to their ability, to each according to their need.  (B) Contra.  (1) In reality, political abuses prevent pure communism from existing.  (2) People under communism are not motivated by self-interest to work and to be creative.  (3) Inefficiency of command economy.  Humans cannot quickly make the millions of decisions that need to be made.  (4) People have no freedom to choose their occupation.  The State owns the means of production, like the land and the person (labor).  No freedom or individuality.  ---  4/28/1998

Economics.  ---  Economic systems.  Free market.  (1) Arguments for free market.  (A) It is efficient, fast and smart.  Government is slow and dumb.  (2) Arguments against free market.  (A) It does anything for a buck (prostitute).  It even tries to persuade people to buy things they don't need, things they can't afford, poor quality junk, and poisonous unhealthy products.  (B) It exploits workers.  (C) It easily becomes corrupt monopoly without government anti-trust laws and watchdog policing.  ---  12/30/1996

Economics.  ---  Economic systems.  PART ONE.  Capitalism.  (1) Definitions.  Freedom as primary value.  Individual is primary.  (2) Pros:  (3) Cons: No protection for employees, consumers and the public.     PART TWO.  Socialism.  (1) Definitions.  (2) Pros:  (3) Cons.     PART THREE.  Communism.  (1) Definitions.  Equality is primary value.  Group is primary.  (2) Pros:  (3) Cons: Central planning is not smart enough or fast enough.  ---  4/14/2002

Economics.  ---  Economic systems.  Pure capitalism and pure communism, the reason they do not work in the real world is because they are both ideal polar opposites.  Pure capitalism is an impractical ideal in that pure capitalism, as defined as completely free markets, is akin to anarchy in that it relies on a lawless society.  Pure communism is an impractical ideal in that it hopes to achieve complete equality among people.  In between the ideal polar opposites of capitalism and communism are the many real-world examples of socialism.  Every economy and government in this world is a form of socialism.  There are an infinite variety of socialisms.  ---  4/14/2002

Economics.  ---  Economic systems.  Pure capitalism does not work.  Pure communism does not work.  We need a mixture.  ---  4/14/2002

Economics.  ---  Economic systems.  Totalitarianism.  Criticisms of totalitarianism.  No freedom for the individual.  Cannot pick your job.  Cannot pick where you live.  Cannot pick what you wear.  Cannot make any profit.  Cannot own any property.  ---  11/15/2005

Economics.  ---  Economics does not exist in a vacuum, despite the fact that many economists think it does.  No decision is a "money alone" decision.  The environment and the political rights of workers, consumers and the general public must be considered in any "economic" decision.  ---  10/12/2005

Economics.  ---  Economics of addiction.  What happens when a society begins to desire things that are not healthy?  If the economy of a society is based on the law of supply and demand, and then the society begins to demand garbage and poison, what then?  What happens when a society begins to produce and consume garbage and poison?  Humans have a tendency towards obsession, addiction and excess when it comes to drugs, sex, food, money and power.  ---  4/29/2005

Economics.  ---  Economics should serve ethics.  Economics should not stand alone.  Economics should not try to stand above the other subject areas.  ---  2/27/2007

Economics.  ---  Effect on economics of (1) Rise in population: unemployment?  Drop in population.  (2) Demographic shifts in population.  Causes: tax rates, cost of living.  Effects:.  ---  12/30/1992

Economics.  ---  Effort vs. results.  ---  12/30/1992

Economics.  ---  Entry to economics.  It matters how you make your money.  Some money is dirty money.  Some money is blood money.  Most people will admit there are certain jobs that they will not work.  Most people will admit that there are certain products that they will not use even if the product is less expensive.  Most people will admit there are certain companies that they will not do business with even if it means spending a little extra.  The amount of money you have is not the ultimate value.  There are ethical considerations to money that go far beyond what you will find in an economics textbook.  ---  5/29/2007

Economics.  ---  Entry to economics.  One of the more useful ways into a discussion of economics is to look at the many attitudes people have about money.  Critique various attitudes that people have about money.  ---  5/29/2007

Economics.  ---  Ethical spectrum.  Conservatives vs. liberals.  Free market vs. command market.  Control vs. freedom.  Cooperation vs. competition.  ---  12/30/1992

Economics.  ---  Evolutionary economics.  (1) Economic behavior in animals (ex. dogs playing poker).  (2) Economic behavior in early humans (c. 200,000 - 10,000 BC).  ---  5/16/2005

Economics.  ---  Evolutionary economics.  (1) Human beings may have an "economics" module in their brains that evolved over thousands of years, that helps us weigh the costs and benefits of any action (including the "action" of using our brains or thinking).  Thus, economics is not just for college anymore.  (2) Our mental choice-making mechanism extends to many areas, such as social relations.  Thus, economics is not just about money anymore.  Many other values besides money are involved.  Thus, ethics gets mixed up with economics.  ---  10/31/2000

Economics.  ---  Evolutionary economics.  Economic behavior in animals.  Food trading.  Favor trading.  Sharing.  Competition.  Reciprocal altruism.  ---  5/17/2005

Economics.  ---  Evolutionary economics.  For millions of years people have lived in an environment that had an economic side.  For millions of years people have been acquiring values like food, having occasional surpluses, and trading surpluses for other values like sex.  Then people began to make things like stone tools and clothes.  People began to trade more things.  As humans evolved, there has always been basic economic concepts like needs, scarcity and utility.  There has always been production and trade.  Even when coin and paper money is not present, people develop other currencies and mediums of exchange, like cigarettes or wampum.  ---  8/14/2004

Economics.  ---  Exchange.  Put in: type thing, amount of it, value of it.  Get out: type of thing, amount of it.  Value of it: to you, to another, to anyone.  ---  12/30/1992

Economics.  ---  Fair Trade is good.  Drink Fair Trade coffee.  Support coffee shops that brew Fair Trade coffee.  Buy Fair Trade food.  Wear Fair Trade clothes.  Search out Fair Trade products on the Internet.  When you buy Fair Trade products you help people make a living wage.  ---  2/18/2007

Economics.  ---  Four separate issues. (1) The technological sophistication of an economy.  One can distinguish between simple and complex products.  In terms of the materials they are made of.  Or in terms of the number of parts they have.  One can also distinguish between technologically primitive and sophisticated products.  (2) The diversity of an economy: How many different products and services it produces.  (3) The size of an economy: The number of workers employed and the amount of products and services produced.  (4) The health of an economy.  Jobs are available due to low unemployment.  Job wages are enough to live on, save some money, and have some leisure time too, all because of low inflation.  (5)(A) An economy can be low-tech yet healthy.  An economy can be high tech yet unhealthy.  (B) An economy that is not diverse is not as healthy as it could be.  (example, single crop economies are prone to blights).  Diversity is healthy.  (C) Greater size, in terms of number of workers available, can promote greater diversity.  Technical sophistication may promote economic diversity.  ---  2/12/2002

Economics.  ---  Four variables in economic systems.  (1) Competition vs. cooperation.  (2) Non-corruption vs. corruption in an economic system.  (3) Efficient vs. inefficient economic systems.  (4) Economic systems with freedom vs. with little freedom.  Freedom of choice, of what to do with life (occupation), and of what to buy.  There was little freedom in Russia's centrally planned economy.  ---  11/30/1997

Economics.  ---  GDP only tells you how much money you are making.  GDP does not tell you what you are making.  GDP only keeps track of items that can be monetized.  GDP does not track items that cannot be monetized.  GDP does not tell you how just a society is.  GDP does not tell you about technological level.  GDP does not tell you about ecological sustainability nor social justice.  GDP does not tell you how many hours people work, or how efficiently the work process is.  ---  3/31/2006

Economics.  ---  Green economics and social justice economics.  (1) Green economics.  The goal is not to own the most stuff and have the most money.  The goal is to own the least stuff and the least money, because it is better to live with a small ecological footprint and its better to give your money away to the needy.  (2) Social justice economics.  Money is not the only nor best measure of value.  Justice, truth, health, education are all higher values than money.  ---  4/30/2007

Economics.  ---  Have vs. don't have.  Need vs. don't need.  Want vs. don't want.  Can get vs. can't get.  Get vs. give.  ---  12/30/1992

Economics.  ---  History current future.  Current.  American economy today.  (1) Global competition.  Post WWII U.S. dominance ending.  Increased foreign competition.  (2) Polarizing effects.  Dwindling middle class.  Rich richer, and poor poorer.  (3) Computerization leads to downscaling, and middle management is disappearing.  Computerized inventory leads to creation of superstores.  (4) Regionalism: Americas NAFTA, European Union, Asiaian RIM.  (5) Other factors.  Fall of communism.  Mid east fundamentalism and terrorism.  Regulation and deregulation.  New technology.  Green movement.  Business cycle.  Government fiscal and monetary policy.  Increasing communication technology.  ---  06/01/1993

Economics.  ---  History current future.  Current.  Nihilistic view.  The economy is polarizing.  The few jobs available today suck and are low paying too.  Global competition and increasing automation make fewer jobs, suckier work, and less pay.  Self esteem plummets, and pathological psychology sets in.  ---  04/10/1993

Economics.  ---  History current future.  Current.  The new economy is information and service based, not industry based or agriculture based.  Services like data processing, lawyers, medicine, and prostitution.  ---  12/29/1997

Economics.  ---  History current future.  History of economics theory and practice.  (1) Increase in amounts and types of trade.  (2) Barter at first, and then money.  (3) Feudalism.  (4) Mercantilism.  (5) Keeping of statistics.  (6) Computer models.  (7) International organizations.  (8) International trade.  Exchange rates.  Balances of trade.  (9) What is the difference if everyone does business a new way?  Changes the economy?  ---  05/27/1993

Economics.  ---  History current future.  History.  Every society has an economic system.  How much people, products and services, and money are in it?  How much raw materials available?  What is needed, what is made, and how is it sold?  How much workers work, produce, and earn.  ---  12/30/1992

Economics.  ---  History current future.  History.  Historical development of economic systems.  (1) Egalitarianism amongst primitives.  (2) Ancient: kings, priest, military, slaves.  (3) Feudalism, nobles. (4) Mercantilism, imperialism.  (5) Capitalism, communism, socialism.  ---  12/30/1992

Economics.  ---  History current future.  History.  The man, his idea, the name of the work he wrote.  ---  12/30/1992

Economics.  ---  History currrent future.  History.  Economic eras.  (1) Economics during hunter-gatherer age.  Humans living at a subsistence level.  (2) Economics during the agricultural age.  Farming.  Humans power.  Animal power.  Waterwheel power.  Windmill power.  Humans do hard physical labor.  (3) Economics during the industrial age.  Machines increase efficiency.  Humans do repetitive physical work.  Assembly line work.  (4) Economics during the computer age.  Computers increase efficiency.  At first, humans do repetitive mental work.  (5) The hope is that humans will have challenging mental work.  Knowledge workers.  ---  7/20/2004

Economics.  ---  Housing is too expensive.  Housing should not require one third of your wages.  Yet, there currently is no available alternative.  Where is the affordable housing?  When people take jobs that they do not like in order to pay the rent for apartments that they cannot afford then something is wrong in society.  ---  9/7/2005

Economics.  ---  How important is economics?  An inflationary view of economics says that economics determines all (economic determinism).  A deflationary view of economics says that economics is less important than politics, technology, etc.  ---  5/17/2005

Economics.  ---  Ideal state approach.  Economic system: the system you set up vs. actually occurs.  Economic system: create, maintain, repair.  ---  12/30/1992

Economics.  ---  Ideal.  What would an ideal economy look like?  No person has to work?  Everyone has a job that they like?  Everyone has the things they need?  Everyone has money?  Everyone owns land?  No one owns land?  ---  10/2/2004

Economics.  ---  If a discussion or situation is not about money can it still be about economics?  Is there an economics of values other than money?  If a discussion is not about exchange is it about economics?  Can we speak of the economy of the single individual?  If a discussion is not about needs, scarcity and value, is it about economics?  What if one had no needs?  That is, what if demand was zero?  What if there was no scarcity?  That is, what if supply was unlimited?  ---  1/20/2005

Economics.  ---  If you are going to ask people to recognize that they are caught in a cycle of over consumption, oil burning and slavery to the corporation, then you should present them with a viable alternative.  Alternative living: Simple, low cost, tolerant, smart, knowledgeable, cooperative, communal, communicative, self sufficient, sustainable.  ---  11/11/2005

Economics.  ---  In a capitalist system it does little good to remind people of the problems of communism because, for one thing, there is little ongoing communism, and secondly, almost everyone in a capitalist system has already been indoctrinated about the problems of communism.  In a capitalist system it does much good to remind people about the problems of capitalism because, for one thing, there is a lot of capitalism going on, and secondly, most people have not developed the ability to think critically about capitalism.  Capitalism is not without its problems.  ---  3/8/2007

Economics.  ---  Income demographics.  What percentage of the population are in each income bracket?  ---  12/14/2004

Economics.  ---  Issues about the economy.  (1) Is the recession ending?  What caused the recession?  The tech stock market bubble?  The Enron and other corporate scandals?  (2) Low wages due to lack of unions.  (3) New jobs are McDonald type jobs.  (4) Unemployment rates are around six percent.  (5) National deficit is ballooning.  That is a bad thing.  (6) Outsourcing of jobs to India and China.  (7) Robotization and computerization of work leads to downsizing.  (8) The housing market is in a bubble, like the stock market was in 1999.  (9) Bush is not a fiscal conservative.  Bush drives the country into debt.  Bush does not help the economy.  The deficit is soaring while tax cuts are given out.  Clinton, to his credit, balanced the budget.  ---  6/15/2005

Economics.  ---  Issues.  (1) Free-trade vs. protectionism.  Buying U.S. made goods only vs. NAFTA.  We sell to other countries so we should buy from other countries.  Losing U.S. jobs to cheap foreign labor.  (2) Fixed currencies vs. fluid or fluctuating currencies.  Example, U.S. dollar vs. japanese yen.  What causes fluctuations.  What was the gold standard?  (3) Balance of trade.  Imports vs. exports.  (4) Savings vs. investment.  ---  12/20/1998

Economics.  ---  Labor (past, present, future).  Who and how many are they?  What do they want?  How are they trying to get it?  Who are they fighting and how?  What are their numbers in each industry?  Who is fighting labor, how, why, and for what?  ---  12/30/1992

Economics.  ---  Labor movement needs to be just and strong.  Get rid of corruption in the labor movement.  Create a vibrant labor movement.  ---  2/19/2007

Economics.  ---  Labor.  (1) Labor unions are one of the main ways to protect workers from exploitation by corporations.  (2) Many large corporations, for example, Walmart and Starbucks, go to great lengths to try to prevent workers from unionizing.  (3) Workers unionize to achieve better pay and health coverage, reasonable hours, child care and other values.  (4) One problem is corruption of unions by organized crime.  Union members pay dues which organized crime tries to take.  (5) Corporations, through the use of campaign fund contributions, try to get laws passed that are unfriendly to labor and friendly to corporations.  ---  1/10/2006

Economics.  ---  Labor.  In an efficient society.  What % of adults are working?  What % are out with physical problems, and psychological problems?  What % are too young to work, or too old to work?  ---  08/17/1997

Economics.  ---  Labor.  Organized crime weakened the unions.   Time to build up unions again, and clear unions of organized crime and corruption.  Use the SEIU as a model.  ---  1/20/2007

Economics.  ---  Labor.  The labor movement in America today needs to be rebuilt.  There is an imbalance of power in favor of corporations and against labor in America today.  ---  11/11/2005

Economics.  ---  Labor.  Unionize the computer workers of the world.  Save your wrists.  Computer workers should not have to work 12 hours a day.  Fight for an 8 hour work day.  Fight to have the right to further your education after work.  Fight to have the right to spend time with your loved ones.  Fight to have a lunch hour.  People in the labor movement died to get the eight hour work day.  Don't let anyone take it away.  ---  6/8/2006

Economics.  ---  Labor.  What happened to the labor movement?  How to get the labor movement back on track?  An international labor movement.  Establishing fair and safe working conditions and wages worldwide.  Some conservative pundits would have you believe that the labor movement is a lost cause, but those conservative pundits are wrong.  Some conservative pundits would have you believe that it is either not a problem or that nothing can be done about it, but those conservative pundits are wrong.  ---  6/26/2005

Economics.  ---  Macro.  International.  Trade occurs because (1) Different people have different skills to produce.  (2) Different people have different resources available to produce.  (3) Different people have different needs to consume.  ---  12/30/1992

Economics.  ---  Macro.  International.  World, international regions.  (1) International finance (money, exchange rates).  (2) International government, international law.  (3) International trade.  National regulations vs. international regulations.  Imports and exports.  Business partners: buyers, sellers.  ---  12/30/1992

Economics.  ---  Macro.  National.  (1) GNP can grow, stagnate, or shrink.  (2) Number of jobs can grow, stagnate, or shrink.  (3) Population can grow, stagnate, or shrink.  ---  12/30/1992

Economics.  ---  Macro.  National.  (1) Type economic system used (capitalism, socialism, communism).  (2) National: GNP and growth rate, rank in world.  (3) Government intervention: area, degree, in whose favor and whose loss.  (4) Money, banking.  (5) Growth, development, and planning, measuring, forecasting.  (6) Ills: inflation, unemployment.  (7) Specific national economies: US economy.  ---  12/30/1992

Economics.  ---  Macro.  National.  GNP: size.  Growth rate.  Changing composition.  Goods vs. services.  Money making vs. product making.  Imports vs. exports.  Crap vs. useful stuff.  ---  06/01/1994

Economics.  ---  Macro.  National.  GNP/GDP: what you make.  How fast is economy growing?  Are you making hi-tech or lo-tech stuff?  PDI: what consumers have to spend.  Spending vs. savings.  Interest rates.  Inflation rate.  Unemployment rate.  Imports vs. exports.  Geographic region, or industry type.  ---  01/01/1993

Economics.  ---  Macro.  National.  What causes rises and drops in inflation, interest rates, stockmarket, unemployment, and GNP?  ---  04/01/1994

Economics.  ---  Make work.  Philosophers, psychologists and car mechanics.  For these professions there has to be a problem.  Otherwise, they are out of a job.  Or worse, if there are no problems then these professions are out of a life purpose.  So, if there are no apparent problems they will have a tendency to do one of three things:  (1) Find a hidden problem.  Make a mountain out of a molehill.  For example, your engine is fixed but now the mechanic wants to straighten your fender.  (2) Create a problem that is not currently present.  For example, your car was running fine so the mechanic took a hammer to it.  (3) See a problem that is not there.  Treat an imaginary problem.  For example, the mechanic replaced a perfectly good part.  (4) Then they milk the problem.  Milk the system.  Milk the customer.  Milk it baby.  (5) Luckily there are lots of real problems on this earth to keep the above professions busy.  However, when the pool of real problems dries up, look out!  (6) Philosophers and psychologists will say "How dare you compare me to an auto mechanic."  The real point is that we need to recognize that all people in all occupations face these temptations.  ---  4/19/2000

Economics.  ---  Make work.  There is often an economic impetus to say there is a problem when there is no problem.  There is an economic impetus to say there is a big problem when there is only a small problem.  There is even an economic impetus to create problems or cause trouble.  That is, there is a monetary incentive for various occupations (ex. auto mechanics, psychologists and philosophers) to stretch out work in order to keep making money.  This subject has to do with the economics of "make work" and "slacking off".  To address this issue, the work system has developed checks and balances such as peer review and professional standards.  How well do these checks and balances work?  ---  4/19/2000

Economics.  ---  Markets.  (1) Gray markets.  Examples: Barter.  Housework.  (2) Black markets.  Examples: Illegal activities.  Illegal and unethical activities.  ---  3/29/2002

Economics.  ---  Markets.  (1) Markets by region, by industry, and by product.  (2) Market or industry structures: pure free, oligopoly, monopolistic, monopoly.  ---  12/30/1992

Economics.  ---  Markets.  Securities markets.  (1) History, size, structure, and mechanism.  (2) How to pick them.  (3) Sellers market vs. buyers market.  (4) Rise or fall, of total market and for specific industries.  (5) Change in a company: how much, how quick.  (6) Markets as leading or lagging indicators.  Markets as direct or indirect, causes or effects, on economy.  (7) Trend analysis and comparative analysis to industry.  (8) What % of GNP is the stock markets.  (9) Money markets, stocks, bonds, options, mutuals.  ---  12/30/1992

Economics.  ---  Markets.  Stocks.  (1) Rise or fall.  Quickly or slowly.  For long duration or short duration.  (2) Causes, forecasting.  (3) Undervalued vs. overvalued.  (4) Preferred stock, common stock.  ---  12/30/1992

Economics.  ---  Markets.  Two markets. (1) Unreported, untaxed legal transactions.  For example, barter and working off the books. (2) Unreported illegal transactions.  I.e., crime.  For example, drug dealing.  (3) How big are these markets relative to the total economy?  ---  2/13/2002

Economics.  ---  Markets.  Type of market.  Size of market: number of companies, in dollars, in people.  Growth rate of industry.  Forces on it: political/law, tech/science, economic/business, sociology/psychology.  Effects of the industry on same.  ---  12/30/1992

Economics.  ---  Markets.  Types of markets.  (1) Food: agriculture, restaurant/fast food.  (2) Clothing: fashion industry.  (3) Shelter: construction business.  (4) Transportation: airline industry, auto industry, train, trucking.  (5) Communication industry.  ---  12/30/1992

Economics.  ---  Markets.  Types of markets.  (1) Manufactured objects.  (2) Commodities (raw materials).  (3) Money markets.  ---  12/30/1992

Economics.  ---  Micro.  Economics of individual: earning, spending, and saving.  How much and when to save, borrow, or spend?  ---  12/30/1992

Economics.  ---  Micro.  Economics of the firm: managerial micro economics.  Ideal states (bea, ror).  Managerial economics: what is the present actual and present potential, and the future actual and future potential, market for our product.  ---  12/30/1992

Economics.  ---  Money and banking.  History of theory and use.  Controlling flow.  Purchasing power: 1 unit of money buys how much stuff?  Standards of value: 1 unit of money buys how much gold, silver, platinum, etc?  ---  12/30/1992

Economics.  ---  Money for money's sake, is the view of the greedy.  There is never enough money for the greedy.  ---  10/19/2005

Economics.  ---  Money is for suckers.  ---  5/14/2007

Economics.  ---  Money, critique of.  (1) There are people who measure success only in terms of money.  It is a mistake to use money as the sole criteria of success.  (2) There are people whose only goal is to become rich for the sake of being rich.  Its a mistake to become rich for the sake of being rich.  ---  3/30/2007

Economics.  ---  Money: what resources spent to get money?  What spend money on?  ---  12/30/1992

Economics.  ---  Money.  (1) Amount of money made for how much of what types of work.  (2) How much goods and services this amount of money can buy?  (3) Amount of money you need to live in society at any given level.  ---  06/10/1997

Economics.  ---  Money.  Why do values of currencies rise and drop in relation to each other?  Why does value of money change through time?  ---  4/1/1994

Economics.  ---  Most important ideas about economics and business.  Green economics.  Green business.  Social justice economics.  Social justice business.  Money should take a back seat to environmental sustainability and social justice.  Do not sacrifice justice and the environment for money.  ---  4/15/2007

Economics.  ---  Most important ideas about economics are ideas about how to achieve an ethical economic system.  Do not define economics narrowly, as a science completely disconnected from ethics.  In the real world, economics is not separate from the other areas of life, and thus, the ethics of economics and business is important part of daily life.  Economics is intertwined with politics, technology and other areas of life.  Be an activist for progressive economic policies.  Buy Fair Trade products.  Protest against sweatshops.  Buy products that help save the environment.  Vote Progressive in support of labor and the environment.  ---  2/19/2007

Economics.  ---  Most important ideas about economics.  (1) Money is not everything.  Money is not the only thing.  (2) Money is not the most important thing.  Somethings are more important than money.  For example, truth and justice are more important than money.  Economics is not the most important science.  (3) Money is not the best judge.  Money is not the best way to value things.  (4) Capitalism has many problems.  Understand the critiques of capitalism.  ---  3/11/2007

Economics.  ---  Outsourcing.  Why is almost everything sold in America today made in China?  America has moved its exploitation of labor overseas.  Americans are more interested in low prices than avoiding foreign slave labor, sweatshop labor, child labor, forced labor and coerced labor.  ---  2/28/2004

Economics.  ---  Participatory economics (PARECON) means economic democracy.  Involve workers and in the decision making processes of businesses.  ---  6/24/2007

Economics.  ---  Philosophy of economics is as important as political philosophy.  The economics system a society sets up is as important as the political system as society sets up.  ---  3/4/2001

Economics.  ---  Philosophy of economics.  (1) Economics today is good at keeping track of what is going on in the world.  (2) Economics today is not so good at finding economic laws of cause and effect.  (3) Economics today is even less adept at guiding the course of events and improving quality of life (normative economics).  ---  4/17/1999

Economics.  ---  Philosophy of economics.  (1) Metaphysics: economic nature of reality.  (2) Epistemology: how we know metaphysics and ethics.  (3) Ethics: best economic system to have.  ---  12/30/1992

Economics.  ---  Philosophy of economics.  (1) Narrow and isolated view:  Economics is about money.  Economics is about costs, revenues and profits.  Economics is about savings and investments.  (2) Broad, integrated view.  Economics is inextricably tied to politics, technology, ethics and many other subjects.  ---  10/28/2005

Economics.  ---  Philosophy of economics.  (1) Wants (needs and luxuries, survival and pleasure).  (2) Scarcity.  (3) Value: utility vs. monetary price.  ---  12/30/1992

Economics.  ---  Philosophy of economics.  A wrong economic view: Whoever has the most stuff at the end wins.  This view is taught to our children using board games.  ---  5/17/2005

Economics.  ---  Philosophy of economics.  Consumption.  People buy stuff because they are told it will keep the economy healthy.  Thus people over-consume in order to keep their jobs.  Sick.  ---  9/12/2001

Economics.  ---  Philosophy of economics.  Early western economic theory was written by rich, powerful, white men, in an attempt to maintain their riches and power, by trying to justify their unethical actions, like slavery, the exploitation of third world colonies, and the exploitation of workers.  Their economic theory has a laizze fare, status quo, conservative bent.  ---  11/11/2005

Economics.  ---  Philosophy of economics.  Economic man.  Development of economic theory had a big effect on human's view of selves.  Many philosophers ignore such important economic issues as needs, scarcity, and value.  They think money is dirty.  ---  11/15/1994

Economics.  ---  Philosophy of economics.  Economics is no longer simply about how much physical stuff your nation can produce.  Today the most important economic issues are (1) The environment.  (2) The digital Internet economy.  (3) The global economy.  (4) The economy of intangibles like (A) Information and education.  (B) Mental health (including love).  (C) Physical health.  (5) Thus, economics is about creating a sustainable, just, healthy society.  ---  4/17/1999

Economics.  ---  Philosophy of economics.  Economics should account for anything people produce, and any resources they consume in order to produce it, not just the distribution (exchange) of things for money.  It must take into account barter, black market, off books, housewives, intellectual production, etc.  ---  11/30/1993

Economics.  ---  Philosophy of economics.  Ethics.  Value.  Monetary value vs. non-monetary value.  Face value vs. market value.  Real value vs. under-valued or over-valued.  Price of x depends on how much you have to spend.  Cost of x (to produce).  Worth of x depends on needs of individual in situation.  ---  09/01/1994

Economics.  ---  Philosophy of economics.  Materialism and overconsumption.  People define themselves through their material possessions.  People try to get happy through stuff.  People try to deal with their problems through stuff.  Stuff is easy to get.  You just order it over the phone or Internet and pay for it by credit card.  Instant gratification.  Stuff today acts as a pacifier.  Important non-stuff things like knowledge and friendship are not easy to get.  People forget about non-stuff things and undervalue non-stuff things because non-stuff things are not as visible and tangible as material stuff.  ---  5/12/2000

Economics.  ---  Philosophy of economics.  Meditations on the metaphysics of money.  We are slaves to money.  We need money like we need air or water.  Unless you live on a self sustainable farm.  Some people worship money.  The less money you need, the better.  Money alone is not the answer.  ---  3/31/2006

Economics.  ---  Philosophy of economics.  Mistakes of economic man or business man.  (1) Believing that money is the sole value in life.  Believing that money is the most important value in life.  Valuing everything in terms of money.  Devaluing everything not associated with money.  (2) Being willing to do anything for money.  Being treacherous for money.  Giving up one's life for money.  Believing in spending all one's time working for money.  ---  8/14/2004

Economics.  ---  Philosophy of economics.  Modern western economic theory since Adam Smith has primarily been a defense of capitalism.  One of the arguments for a defense of capitalism is the view that humans are rational.  The view that humans are rational all the time can be challenged.  It is more accurate to say humans are neurotic, occasionally psychotic, and prone to the hysteria of fads that produce bubbles and crashes.  Humans are also emotional, prone to act based on greed and fear.  ---  11/11/2005

Economics.  ---  Philosophy of economics.  New economy sum up.  (1) Money is not the only value (see Philosophy, ethics, value).  (2) The entire economy must be included.  All resources and all waste.  From a more ecological perspective.  (3) The economics of information and the economics of experiences is as important as the economics of goods and services.  (4) Include all forms of work and trade.  Examples: housework; barter; gray markets; black markets.  ---  4/23/2002

Economics.  ---  Philosophy of economics.  The mistaken assumption of rationality in western economic theory has a mistaken implication of automatic ethical behavior leading to justice.  That is, if you assume rationality in people and their economic system then you are more likely to assume goodness as well.  However, people are frequently corrupt.  Corruption is one of the main problems of the free market and capitalism.  ---  11/11/2005

Economics.  ---  Philosophy of economics.  The most important idea in the philosophy of economics is that economics is not the most important idea.  ---  5/14/2007

Economics.  ---  Philosophy of economics.  The most important ideas in the philosophy of economics.  Money is not everything.  Money is not the only thing.  Money is not the most important thing.  Some things are more important than money.  Society should recognize that some things are more important than money.  Social justice is more important than money.  We forgo money to pursue more important things.  We pursue important things even if it costs more money.  For example, buy organic food even if it costs more.  For example, protect the environment even if it produces less money.  For example, take a Progressive job even if it pays less money.  ---  5/14/2007

Economics.  ---  Philosophy of economics.  The problem is that some feel that the main problems in life are primarily economic.  They feel that economics is the most important thing in life.  They feel that money matters most.  So they feel that mindless production and mindless consumption in order to keep the GDP rising through consumer spending is justified.  They may feel this way because money is easily quantifiable.  Things that are less easily quantified they have trouble seeing.  ---  8/26/1999

Economics.  ---  Philosophy of economics.  Value, economic and otherwise.  A commonly held, false assumption is that if one cannot make money from an activity then that activity is worthless, useless, has no value, or has value that cannot be measured.  This assumption is a major flaw in modern economic thought.  ---  1/1/2004

Economics.  ---  Politics, Technology and Economics.  (1) What things a society is capable of making is a question of technology.  (2) What things a society allows itself to make is a question of politics.  (3) What things there is a demand and supply for is a question of economics.  (4)(A) However, manufacturers attempt to create artificial demand through advertising.  (B) If a person lives in a society where commercial advertisements are omnipresent and inescapable, then that is a problem.  If a person lives in a society that continually pitches garbage and poison, then that is a problem.  (C) If a person lives in a society where the goods and services the person actually needs are unavailable then that is a problem.  (D) That is, there can be a disconnect between what a corporate producer decides to produce and what an consumer needs.  ---  10/12/2005

Economics.  ---  Poverty and wealth.  (1) Poverty is not a virtue if you are not doing anything to help the world.  Poverty is not a virtue, period.  Helping the world is a virtue.  (2) Wealth is not a virtue if you are not doing anything to help the world.  Wealth is not a virtue, period.  Helping the world is a virtue.  ---  12/1/2006

Economics.  ---  Poverty.  A big cause of poverty is exploitation of humans by other humans.  Examples:  Exploitation of serfs by feudal aristocrats.  Exploitation of colonies by mercantalists.  Exploitation of slaves by slave holders.  Exploitation of third world countries by first world countries.  Exploitation of tenants by landowners charge exorbitant rents.  Exploitation of employees by employers who demand long hours of work for low wages.  ---  8/8/2006

Economics.  ---  Problem.  Inflation.  Price of x (up or down) multiplied by wages to spend on x (up or down) = price of average basket.  $1 buys y amount of x.  ---  12/30/1992

Economics.  ---  Problem.  Shortage vs. glut.  (1) Not producing enough for your population vs. producing more than enough for your population.  (2) Consuming too much (conspicuous consumption) vs. consuming too little (economic anorexics).  ---  12/30/1992

Economics.  ---  Problems approach.  Depression.  Unemployment.  Number of jobs (up or down) multiplied by population size (up or down) = number unemployed (up or down).  Incentives to new business start-ups.  ---  12/30/1992

Economics.  ---  Problems.  The economic cost of war is huge.  The economic cost of corruption is huge.  ---  4/17/1999

Economics.  ---  Problems.  The worst economic ills.  (1) Unemployment.  (A) Causes of unemployment.  Less spending.  Less exports.  (B) Results of unemployment.  Rising unemployment results in lower wages.  (2) Inflation.  (A) Causes of inflation.  Flooding the economy with money.  (B) Results of inflation.  Inflation results in higher prices for goods.  The dollar buys less.  (3) Crappy jobs.  (A) Causes of crappy jobs.  (B) Results of crappy jobs.  Backbreaking work.  Boring work.  Long work hours.  Low pay.  (4) Worse than all of these is social injustice, including corruption and crime.  (5) Mindless economic growth by pillaging and plundering the earth is not justified.  (6) Invention and entrepreneurship (development) is better.  ---  8/26/1999

Economics.  ---  Problems.  Unemployment should not exist.  Anyone who wants to work should be able to get a job for a wage that they can survive on by working forty hours a week (which may be more or less than the current minimum wage).  No one should go without a job and food, clothing and shelter.  If this was so, then all crime based on survival drive would not be justified.  The remaining crime would all be due to pure greed.  ---  4/17/1999

Economics.  ---  Production and consumption.  (1) Consumers.  How much do they earn?  What percent do they spend, save and invest?  What is their quality of life, i.e. how much do they get for what they spend?  How much do they get from their government?  How much do they pay to their government?  (2) Producers.  How much does it cost them to produce?  How much do they charge for final product?  How much profit do they make?  (3) Distribution.  How much x do you get for y?  ---  12/30/1993

Economics.  ---  Production and consumption.  (1) Some people are material stuff collectors or consumers.  (2) Some people are physical experience collectors or consumers.  (3) Some people are psychological phenomena collectors or consumers (ex. ideas, emotions, and attitudes).  (4) Any of the above can fall prey to Thorsten Veblens model of conspicuous consumption.  ---  5/12/2000

Economics.  ---  Production and consumption.  (1) We produce and consume not only stuff but also ideas (attitudes) and experiences.  People often do not feel alive unless they are producing or consuming.  (Or distributing as a dealer, seller or bargainer).  This is a bad attitude.  These people require constant action, constant excitement, constant work (produce) and constant play (consume).  These people can't relax, be calm and de-stress.  It takes practice and conscious effort to relax and de-stress.  Those obsessed with producing and consuming have trouble attaining this healthy state.  (2) Is a state where one is not obsessed with producing and consuming equal to a state where one is wasting one's life?  Is it unethical to not produce and consume?  Yet isn't this what our ancestors did for millions of years?  Sometimes its good to do nothing.  To wait, still and quiet, with patience.  But not all the time.  ---  8/6/2000

Economics.  ---  Production and consumption.  Americans over consume.  Americans are pigs.  Actually, it is an insult to pigs to compare pigs to the consumption habits of Americans.  ---  11/11/2005

Economics.  ---  Progressive economics.  Do not spend a lot of money on shelter, food, and clothing.  Do not buy from corporations that destroy the environment.  Do not buy from corporations with poor human rights records.  Buy green.  Buy blue.  Do buy local organic food.  Do buy from small, non-corporate businesses.  Use less oil.  Consume less, not more.  Have a smaller ecological footprint.  Give money to philanthropies.  Vote Progressive.  ---  5/5/2007

Economics.  ---  Progressive economics.  The current American economic system is seriously flawed because the current American economic system has the goals of using more resources, making more things, promoting the idea that getting rich is a good thing, and promoting a life of useless leisure.  Through the process of corporate indoctrination and brainwashing and advertising, many Americans have a back-asswards view of economics and thus of life in general.  (1) The goal is not to use more resources; the goal is to use less resources.  (2) The goal is not to own more things; the goal is to own less things.  (3) The goal is not to have more money; the goal is to have less money because you gave a lot of money to philanthropies and because you gave a lot of money to the workers you pay.  (4) The goal is not to retire and do nothing; the goal is to have a long life of Progressive activism.  (5) The goal is not to keep working more in order to keep earning more money in order to pay of credit card debt on the things you keep buying; the goal is to work enough to live so that you have plenty of free time to be a Progressive activist and make the world a better place.  (6) America needs to adopt Progressive economics in order to become a sustainable society.  ---  4/30/2007

Economics.  ---  Quantifying the economy.  Number of producers.  Number of types of goods and services produced.  Number of actual units of goods and services produced.  Number of consumers.  Amount of money in circulation.  ---  5/25/2006

Economics.  ---  Related subjects.  (1) Marx thought that economics determines politics.  (2) Other people believe that politics determines the economic system.  (3) Still others believe that technology determines economics.  (4) Still others believe that economics, politics and technology influence each other and are tied together in a web like way.  ---  2/12/2002

Economics.  ---  Related subjects.  (1) Politics and economics.  Politics shapes economics.  (2) Technology and economics.  Technology shapes economics.  (3) Sociology and economics.  The creation of wants in a society is in part a social phenomenon.  ---  5/17/2005

Economics.  ---  Related subjects.  Effects of and on.  (1) Politics: affects economic system, and is affected by economic system.  How government controls economy.  (2) Technology: affects economic system by affecting business.  What you know how to make.  Technologies to make things.  Who produces most (economic advantage) vs. who produces best (technology advantage).  (3) Business: depends on economic system.  (4) Ethics: values and ideals determine what people want.  (5) Work: work system depends on economic system and technology.  (5) Nature: natural resources available.  Things needed to live in specific environments.  (6) Psychology and sociology: what people desire to buy.  What businesses then make.  (7) Education: One view holds that it does not matter how smart workforce is on avgerage.  It matters how smart and daring the entrepreneurs are.  ---  12/30/1992

Economics.  ---  Related subjects.  Politics and economics: ownership rights.  ---  2/10/2005

Economics.  ---  Related subjects.  Politics and economics.  (1) The economic and business system is dependent on and determined by the laws created by the political system.  (2) What would a lawless economic system look like?  "Caveat emptor" or "Let the buyer beware".  (3) Economics is determined by politics.  Politics is not determined by the economic system, as Marx thought.  ---  2/12/2002

Economics.  ---  Related subjects.  Technology and economics: power of production.  ---  2/10/2005

Economics.  ---  Resources vs. waste and junk.  ---  12/30/1992

Economics.  ---  Resources: raw materials, manmade stuff, time, energy, money.  ---  12/30/1992

Economics.  ---  Retirement.  The hoax of retirement.  They tell people to struggle and save for retirement.  Then when you retire you can do nothing.  Or worse, when you retire you choose to do nothing, and die.  ---  4/29/2005

Economics.  ---  Sharing resources is more economically efficient than not sharing resources.  For example, a public library allows everyone in a community to read books that no single individual would be able to accumulate on their own.  ---  10/12/2005

Economics.  ---  Size and complexity.  How big a system do you need to maintain how complex a system?  One man can't do everything.  How many people do you need to do all the stuff that needs to be done?  For example, how many orthopedic surgeons do you need for how many people?  When does redundancy occur?  ---  04/01/1994

Economics.  ---  Size and complexity.  How big a system do you need to sustain how complex a system?  ---  02/24/1994

Economics.  ---  Soon everyone in the world will have enough material stuff to live.  We can use technology to minimize the amount of physical stuff we need to live.  Example, we can use one small electronic book reader instead of an entire bookcase of books.  ---  4/17/1999

Economics.  ---  Specific economies.  Questions to ask about specific economies.  (1) Size, growth rate.  (2) Constituent industries.  (3) Technology types and levels.  (4) Political interference, type (promote, prohibit), amount, area.  (5) Social factors.  Causes and effects.  (6) Qualitative and qualitative description.  (7) Static and dynamic analysis.  (8) Relationships to political, sociology, tech for big system.  ---  12/30/1992

Economics.  ---  Specific economies.  U.S. economy.  U.S. population income breakdown.  Top 1% own 30% of wealth.  Next 9% own 30% of wealth.  Next 90% own 30% of wealth.  ---  12/30/1992

Economics.  ---  Static analysis (momentary) vs. dynamic analysis (through time).  Produced what, and how much?  Used up what resources, and how much of each?  Money made vs. money lost, for each product bought and sold.  ---  12/30/1992

Economics.  ---  Stock market.  (1) A "rational" market rewards intelligence.  A corrupt, manipulated market does not reward intelligence.  A market of mindless speculation does not reward intelligence.  (2) Stock price is based on demand for the stock, not the performance or value of company.  (3) The market falls in times of crisis, because crisis creates uncertainty and risk.  People pull out, supply goes up, demand goes down, and so price goes down.  (4) Trying to keep track of which stocks to pick, how much to buy, when to buy, when to sell, tracking the stock price daily, and tracking the company's news daily, is stressful and time-consuming (all just to get 100% or 200% return instead of 25% or 35% percent return).  (5) There is always someone smarter and faster picking the stocks, usually a professional.  Can you get 30% long term, like a fund manager?  (6) It is difficult to be completely objective about all the news.  Many people's innate sense of optimism (thinking everything is fine, and everything will be fine) keeps them from recognizing economic problems and business problems.  ---  07/18/1997

Economics.  ---  Stock market.  (1) Reasons not to get into the stock market.  (A) Could lose all my money.  (B) It is not honest hard work.  (2) Reason to get into market.  (A) Help yourself financially.  (B) Help others with philanthropy.  ---  7/18/1998

Economics.  ---  Stock market.  Dow reflects blue chip prices, which reflect (1) How well the companies are actually doing?  (2) How well the market or economy is actually doing?  (3) How much people want those stocks, regardless of actual company condition?  (4) Subjective confidence in the market, or in the economy?  ---  01/19/1997

Economics.  ---  Stock market.  Good fundamentals do not assure that a stock will do well.  Because the price of the stock may stay where it is for six months before it moves.  Technical analysis helps with timing.  ---  11/9/1999

Economics.  ---  Stock market.  If you play the stock market day to day you must realize that (1) The stock market is not 100% rational.  There are fads (from greed) and panics (from fear).  The stock market has a strong emotional component.  The market does not always act logically.  (2) The stock market is not 100% just (fair).  There is manipulation.  It is crooked to a degree.  It is rigged.  Some degree of insider trading occurs. You have to try to recognize it and take it into account.  For example, large powerful players with lots of money time their strategic announcements to further their own self interests.  (3) The stock market is not 100% open.  A lot of information is known only to a few.  There is still a degree of secrecy, as well as lying.  You often do not have all the information you need to make a decision.  ---  3/4/2001

Economics.  ---  Stock market.  Is the company getting a lot of good press?  Vibe and spin.  Profits: the amount they mark up depends on supply and demand.  How many units they sell depends on demand.  Is demand growing?  Is their product the best one on the market?  Who in the industry is strongest (size), vs. who is coming on strongest (growth rate).  Revenue - Expenses = Profits.  ---  06/30/1997

Economics.  ---  Stock market.  Reasons why the stockmarket is booming in the '90s.  (1) Mutual funds make it less risky for small investors.  (2)  The Internet makes research quicker, and buying cheaper.  ---  07/18/1997

Economics.  ---  Stock market.  Stock playing strategies.  (1) Playing world scene movements, whether they be social, political, technological, etc.  (2) Playing national economy movements. (3) Playing industry movements.  (4) Playing specific corporation movements.  ---  12/24/2003

Economics.  ---  Stock market.  The ethical way to play the stock market is to invest in a green mutual fund comprised of the stocks of companies that support ecological sustainability and social justice.  You might not make as much money, but you can sleep at night knowing that you are not raping the earth and exploiting workers.  ---  11/11/2005

Economics.  ---  Stock market.  The stock market exists.  If we can make money in it, we must.  Send a certain percentage to charity.  Money is a good thing if put to good use.  ---  08/17/1997

Economics.  ---  Stock market.  Ways to play the market, from short view to long view.  (1) Momentum play.  Based on the days trading of a stock.  (2) Technical play.  Based on the stocks recent charts of performance.  (3) Fundamental play.  Based on a history of solid performance by a company.  (4) Strategy play.  Based on what developments are just starting to actually happen with a company.  (5) Vision play.  Based on what trends you think will occur in the future.  ---  12/10/1999

Economics.  ---  Stock market.  Why to get into stocks.  (1) The little guy deserves a piece of the action.  Not just the big corporations.  It is more democratic that way.  (2) Not everyone is can do it.  It takes brains.  Of those who can, the liberals deserve the money, because they will redistribute it, and use it for good.  (3) Getting into the market is not about greed.  It is about giving money.  It is about an intellectual challenge.  It is about ideas, and being able to see good ones and avoid bad ones.  ---  09/26/1997

Economics.  ---  Supply and demand.  (1) Supply.  Factors of production: land, labor, raw materials, capital.  What increases and decreases supply?  More/less efficient technology.  More/less costly materials, labor, and machines.  Price: cheaper/more expensive.  (2) Demand.  What increases/decreases demand?  More/less people.  Recognize more/less quality in product.  Cheaper/costlier products.  More/less cash to spend.  Change in tastes or knowledge.  People buy more/less.  ---  12/30/1992

Economics.  ---  Sweatshops are bad.  Sweatshops exploit people.  Boycott corporations that make their products in sweatshops.  Buy Fair Trade products which help workers make a living wage.  ---  2/19/2007

Economics.  ---  Take, make, trade, steal, buy, share, find.  ---  12/30/1992

Economics.  ---  Tax demographics.  What percentage of the population are in each tax bracket?  ---  12/14/2004

Economics.  ---  Taxes.  Working "off the books" is a form of tax evasion and tax evasion is a crime.  Legal citizens of the US who work "off the books" are cheating the system.  The people who want to live in America without paying any taxes are tax cheats.  Taxes are used to pay for public works projects.  Everyone should pay taxes.  Corporations should pay taxes too.  ---  5/5/2007

Economics.  ---  Techniques of economics.  (1) Techniques or methods for studying the economy.  Example, statistics.  (2) Techniques for changing the economy.  For example, reducing inflation or reducing unemployment.  ---  11/13/2005

Economics.  ---  Techniques or methods.  Science of economics.  (1) Theories, facts, proofs, laws, equations.  (2) Observe, measure, describe, explain, predict or forecast, prescribe.  (3) Quantitative, scientific, and historical methods.  Trend analysis, comparative analysis.  ---  12/30/1992

Economics.  ---  Techniques or methods.  Ways to measure an economic situation or event or factor.  ---  12/30/1992

Economics.  ---  Techniques.  (1) Descriptive economics: the way it is.  (2) Predictive economics: the way it will be.  (3) Normative economics: the way it ought to be.  ---  12/30/1992

Economics.  ---  Techniques.  (1) Planning: forecasting tools.  (2) Control: monetary policy, fiscal policy, etc.  ---  12/30/1992

Economics.  ---  Techniques.  Economic policies and who they favor: (1) Reduce unemployment.  (2) Raise or cut taxes.  (3) Raise or cut interest rates.  (4) Regulate or deregulate.  (5) Nationalize or privatize.  (6) Big government vs. small government.  (7) Increase or decrease inflation.  (8) Money supply.  (9) Balance of trade.  (10) Exchange rates.  (11) Savings.  (12) Spending.  (13) Investment.  ---  09/01/1994

Economics.  ---  Techniques.  The tools we have to control the economy include (1) laws to limit or guide activities, and (2) incentives and bonuses to stimulate actions.  ---  4/17/1999

Economics.  ---  Techno-economic complexity of a society.  1 type of job.  10 types of jobs.  100 types of jobs.  1000 types of jobs.  10,000 types of jobs.  ---  3/2/2006

Economics.  ---  The challenge is how to get the American people to realize that economic and political monopolies are bad when Americans grow up playing a board game called "Monopoly".  ---  7/7/2005

Economics.  ---  The economic system is created by humans.  Create a more just economics system.  ---  4/15/2007

Economics.  ---  The economic system is the result of the political system.  Marx would argue the opposite, that the political system is the result of the economic system.  ---  5/12/2005

Economics.  ---  The economy is a complex system with many parts and levels.  The economic system is closely linked with other systems like the political system and the technology system.  ---  5/4/2007

Economics.  ---  The goal of the economy should be ecological sustainability and social justice.  Not making the most things at the lowest cost.  Not selling the most things at the highest price.  Not making the most money.  ---  5/25/2006

Economics.  ---  The primary goal of an economic system is not money and goods.  The primary goal of an economic system is knowledge and the well being of the citizens.  ---  5/25/2006

Economics.  ---  The techno-poor of the future.  He made a million dollars this year.  He spent 250,000 on food.  250,000 on rent.  250,000 on transportation.  250,000 on Internet access.  ---  3/5/2006

Economics.  ---  There is a great need for many things that have no monetary price and that a person cannot "make a living" doing, but that one can "make a meaningful life" doing.  ---  10/12/2005

Economics.  ---  There is always trade, even if only of favors.  There are always entrepreneurs trying out new ideas.  There are always workers.  ---  5/17/2005

Economics.  ---  Three areas of economics: production, distribution, and consumption.  ---  12/30/1992

Economics.  ---  Three questions.  (1) What to make?  (2) How to make it?  That is a technological issue.  (3) Why make it?  That is an ethical debate.  ---  11/15/2005

Economics.  ---  Time = money.  ---  12/30/1992

Economics.  ---  Time and energy are the most basic economic units.  Then knowledge and raw materials.  Then money and goods.  ---  5/17/2005

Economics.  ---  US economic system.  Obscene profits taken from consumers  and then spent ostentatiously by overpaid corporate executives.  There should be lower prices for consumers, higher wages for workers, and lower salaries for corporate executives.  ---  11/12/2005

Economics.  ---  US economic system.  Today in America corporate profits are too high.  Corporate accountability is too low.  Corporate taxation is to low.  Corporate executive pay is too high.  ---  11/11/2005

Economics.  ---  Wages.  Three injustices in the current wage system.  (1) An excess of corporate power is unjust.  The corporations have more so the corporations can pay more.  Workers who want to make a good living begin to suck up to the corporations.  (2) It is unjust that people strive to make money in order to buy useless and unhealthy things that they are inculcated to buy through the overwhelming amounts of advertising that only rich corporations can afford, and that government allows corporations to disseminate because government is in the pocket of the corporations.  (3) It is unjust that many people who work long and hard do not receive a living wage that reflects their efforts.  It is unjust that workers are exploited by being given low wages.  ---  2/7/2007

Economics.  ---  Waste: on personal level and societal level.  Excessive consumption of useless crap (ex. jewelry, vacation).  Vs.  Thrifty use of good stuff (ex. education, books).  But lets face it, sometimes you need a vacation.  ---  01/01/1993

Economics.  ---  Welfare.  Components of welfare.  Unemployment.  Social security.  Medicare and Medicaid.  Food stamps.  ---  5/25/2006

Economics.  ---  Welfare.  To throw the poor in jail for being poor is injustice.  To let the poor die for being poor is an injustice.  To not have any social welfare system at all is an injustice.  Some people cannot see that.  ---  5/25/2006

Economics.  ---  When people improve a product or service it is a technological improvement that has an economic effect.  ---  4/24/2005

Economics.  ---  Why study economics?  To avoid real economic problems, and to reach the ideal economic state.  ---  12/30/1992

Economics.  ---  World Bank, International Monetary Fund (IMF), and World Trade Organization (WTO), create rules that favor rich people over the poor, and that favors rich corporations over the poor, and that favor rich nations over the poor, and that is unjust.  ---  4/15/2007

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Paul Nervy Notes. Copyright 1988-2007 by Paul Nervy.