Paul Nervy Notes
“Jokes, poems, stories, and a lot of philosophy, psychology, and sociology.”

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Science.  ---  .Introduction or sum up of science.  (1) Math and science.  To what extent does modern science depend on math?  (ex. statistics and probability).  Quite a bit.  (2) Technology and science are symbiotic.  Technology makes it possible to do science.  Science makes possible technological advances.  (3) Pseudo-science vs. science.  Pseudo-science claims to be scientific but it is not.  (4) Philosophy and science.  Science is slowly but surely encroaching on the domain of philosophy.  However, some philosophers are scientifically oriented, and some scientists are philosophically oriented.  (5) Religion and science.  Science and religion are seemingly at odds.  (6) Politics and science.  Political funding of science.  Political policy based on scientific knowledge.  (7) Art and science are seemingly at odds.  Art being inexact, figurative and qualitative.  Science being exact, literal and quantitative.  (8) With the blurring of the animal-human distinction, there will be a blurring between the natural sciences (astronomy, physics, chemistry, biology) and the social sciences (psychology, sociology, economics, political science, anthropology).  (9) Science and society.  (A) Science is, by its nature, a group effort.  (B) The masses tend to put great hope in science, and then get disappointed when science does not answer all their questions.  (10)  Individual and science.  To what degree do individuals think scientifically in everyday life by using the scientific method?  To what degree do individuals think about the subjects matter of the sciences?  ---  12/1/2001

Science.  ---  .This section is about science in general.  Topics include: ( ) Method.  ( ) Philosophy of science.  ( ) Pseudo-science.  ( ) Related subjects.  ( ) What is science.  ---  1/24/2006

Science.  ---  (1) Science and individual: applying philosophy and science principles in your life.  (2) Science and society:.  ---  12/30/1992

Science.  ---  (1) Science in realm of epistemology.  (2) Science in spectrum of religion, art, philosophy, science.  ---  12/30/1992

Science.  ---  Big and small science.  (1) Big science: (A) Government funded.  (B) Corporate funded.  (C) University funded.  (D) Non-profit funded.  (2) Small science: Use of the scientific method by people in everyday life.  ---  7/12/2001

Science.  ---  Big science vs. small science.  (1) Big science.  Many people.  Lots of money.  Long time.  Much data.  (2) Small science.  One man.  Few dollars.  Short time.  Little data.  ---  5/20/1998

Science.  ---  Classification of sciences.  (I) Natural sciences.  (A) Physical sciences.  (1) Astronomy: astrophysics.  (2) Physics.  (3) Chemistry: physical, analytic vs. synthetic, inorganic vs. organic.  (B) Life sciences.  Biology, biophysics, biochemistry.  (C) Earth sciences.  (1) Earth: geology, geochronology.  (2) Air: meteorology.  (3) Water: hydrology.  (II) Social sciences.  (A) Psychology.  (B) Sociology.  (1) Political science.  (2) Comparative law.  (3) Economics.  (4) Anthropology: cultural, physical.  ---  12/30/1992

Science.  ---  Creative scientists vs. run of mill, by the book scientists.  ---  12/30/1992

Science.  ---  Development of man's thought.  Four ways of experiencing world: science, philosophy, art, and myth/magic/religion.  ---  12/30/1992

Science.  ---  Ethics and science.  Science is not the same as ethics.  However, science produces knowledge, and knowledge can improve ethics.  ---  12/6/2005

Science.  ---  Everyone is a scientist.  The essence of the scientist is the willingness to try something new.  Experimental creativity.  The opposite of which is psychological rigidity and behavioral rigidity.  Rigidity can be caused by fear, learned helplessness, fanatical traditionalism or conservatism.  ---  1/6/1999

Science.  ---  Goal: gain knowledge, communicate knowledge, use knowledge.  ---  12/30/1992

Science.  ---  History of science in general vs. specific sciences.  The idea of science in general, the methods of science in general.  History of technological applications of science: see technology.  The man, his life's contribution, how great was he and why, specific works, the theory/concept advanced, the fact proved, the experiment, the book or article wrote.  Systematic exposition of issues (past and current) in philosophy of science.  Development of the methods (technology, techniques) of science.  ---  12/30/1992

Science.  ---  How do the different sciences differ, and what are their similarities?  Especially in terms of methods.  ---  12/30/1992

Science.  ---  I would rather that I not believe in something that really exists for lack of sufficient evidence than I would believe in something that does not exist for lack of high enough epistemological standards.  ---  11/10/2001

Science.  ---  Many scientists say there is no physical proof of the Freudian Unconscious.  How much proof (types and degrees) do you need for it to be scientifically accepted?  If the proof is one hundred years away in the future, should you still believe it?  ---  4/10/2000

Science.  ---  Method.  (1) Define problem or question (see Psychology, thinking, problem solving).  (2) Review literature. (3) Form hypothesis.  (4) Research design.  Types of research: experiment, survey, content analysis, and field observation.  Historical approaches.  Experiment in nature.  Experiment in lab.  Statistical experiment.  Historical experiment.  (5) Degree of control in an experiment: from total to none.  ---  12/30/1992

Science.  ---  Method.  (1) Simple experiments.  (2) Complex experiments: many questions, many methods, many subjects, many trials, much data, long time, many researchers.  ---  12/30/1992

Science.  ---  Method.  Collect data, analyze data, draw conclusions.  ---  12/30/1992

Science.  ---  Method.  Create, organize, store, and retrieve knowledge.  ---  12/30/1992

Science.  ---  Method.  Description: qualitative and quantitative.  Explanation.  Prediction.  ---  12/30/1992

Science.  ---  Method.  Discovery, validation, unification.  ---  12/30/1992

Science.  ---  Method.  Express information quantitatively.  Express laws in numerical equation form.  ---  12/30/1992

Science.  ---  Method.  Folk wisdom: the unconscious scientific method.  ---  12/30/1992

Science.  ---  Method.  Form laws.  Discover constants.  Recognize order in world.  ---  12/30/1992

Science.  ---  Method.  Isolate, observe, measure, manipulate.  How to do above without making mistakes?  ---  12/30/1992

Science.  ---  Method.  Measurement.  Theory.  Instruments: tools and techniques, precision of.  ---  12/30/1992

Science.  ---  Method.  Observation of human vs. nonhuman phenomenon.  ---  12/30/1992

Science.  ---  Method.  Observer influence on subject.  Observer bias toward or against subject.  ---  12/30/1992

Science.  ---  Method.  Search, explore, observe, experiment, classify.  ---  12/30/1992

Science.  ---  Method.  Types of experiments.  (1) Experiments you can do anywhere, with easily found materials vs. experiments that require specialized equipment.  (2) Experiments on inert matter, on plants, on animals, on yourself, and on others.  (3) Experiments that hurt or destroy vs. harmless experiments.  ---  1/6/1999

Science.  ---  Most important idea about science is the problem of the vast number of people who reject science in the name of religion.  That is, the problem of people who reject truth and justice in the name of blind belief.  ---  5/29/2007

Science.  ---  Nature influences man, and man influences nature.  ---  12/30/1992

Science.  ---  Origins of science.  Science has roots in technology and philosophy.  (1)  Science has one of its roots in technology.  However, to differentiate the two, while technology is concerned with the practical application of knowledge, science is concerned with knowledge for knowledge's sake.   (2) Science has another of its roots in philosophy.  However, unlike philosophy, science limits its scope to nature, and science limits its methodology to the scientific method.  ---  1/3/2002

Science.  ---  Philosophy and science.  (1) Science vs. philosophy:  One view is that science evolved from philosophy, and now science is kicking philosophy's butt.  (2) Science vs. ethics.  I say that ethics should be firmly grounded in science.  You have to know what is in order to know what to do.  You have to know what is true before you can know what is good.  (3) Science vs. aesthetics: (A) A pro-science view would say that there is a biological basis for aesthetics and hence art, so science and art are directly and closely connected.  (B) An anti-science view would say that the realm of art is completely separate from science.  I disagree with that.  ---  7/12/2001

Science.  ---  Philosophy and science.  Is scientific knowledge superior or inferior to philosophical knowledge?  Is there any difference between science and philosophy?  Can we really separate evidence and argument?  Can we really separate fact and logic?  ---  4/17/2001

Science.  ---  Philosophy of science.  .See also: Philosophy, epistemology.  See also: Psychology, thinking, logic, etc.  ---  12/30/1992

Science.  ---  Philosophy of science.  (1) Types of thinking: analysis vs. synthesis.  (2) Logical inference: deduction vs. induction (science).  ---  12/30/1992

Science.  ---  Philosophy of science.  Ethics and science.  (1) Scientists cannot afford to ignore ethics by taking an amoral position.  (2) Scientists cannot afford to be unethical and act immoral.  (3) Ethicists cannot afford to ignore science.  ---  7/12/2001

Science.  ---  Philosophy of science.  Ethics and science.  They often say that science can tell us nothing about ethics.  But evolutionary psychology yields many insights into ethical topics such as reciprocation, altruism, etc.  ---  11/20/2001

Science.  ---  Philosophy of science.  Ethics and science. Some people think scientists should have no public opinions regarding ethics and make no public statements regarding ethics.  I disagree.  It is neither possible nor advisable for scientists to completely avoid the realm of ethics.  It is impossible for science to be value free.  It is inadvisable for science to be value free.  (1) One example, scientists must consider the ethics of their experimental design.  Scientists must decide whether to experiment on animals, or on humans.  (2) Another example, silence itself can be a statement.  Communication is unavoidable.  And communication is an unavoidable arena of ethics.  When scientists decide not to speak on an issue, their silence is often construed as consent.  (3) A third example, scientists should consider the ethical implications of the knowledge they discover.  Technologists should also.  Everyone should consider the ethical implications of the knowledge they discover.  Because knowledge has unavoidable ethical implications.  ---  11/12/2004

Science.  ---  Philosophy of science.  Ethics.  Good science vs. bad science.  Good philosophy vs. bad philosophy, traits of each.  ---  12/30/1992

Science.  ---  Philosophy of science.  Ethics.  Science and ethics.  Turning away from science is unethical.  Depending completely on science is unethical.  ---  12/30/1992

Science.  ---  Philosophy of science.  Ethics.  Sciences cannot remain ethically neutral.  But can't allow ethics to color results.  ---  12/30/1992

Science.  ---  Philosophy of science.  Ethics.  Unethical science practices.  (1) Experimental subject manipulation.  (2) Lying or withholding information.  (3) Doctoring or hiding or revealing results.  (4) Fudging data and results.  (5) Plagiarizing.  ---  12/30/1992

Science.  ---  Philosophy of science.  Ethics.  View that science should take ethical stances.  View that science should not take ethical stances.  ---  12/30/1992

Science.  ---  Philosophy of science.  Fact and theory.  Inquiry and proof.  Good reasoning and bad reasoning.  ---  12/30/1992

Science.  ---  Philosophy of science.  How to scientifically prove and disprove an idea.  ---  12/30/1992

Science.  ---  Philosophy of science.  Metaphysics.  At what point does philosophy become science and visa versa?  Metaphysics is being replace by science.  ---  12/30/1992

Science.  ---  Philosophy of science.  Methods of inquiry/investigation/discovery; explanation; verification/proof.  ---  12/30/1992

Science.  ---  Philosophy of science.  Science: empirical fact.  Philosophy: logic, ethics, belief.  ---  12/30/1992

Science.  ---  Philosophy of science.  View that science is better than other types knowledge.  View that science is inferior to other forms knowledge.  ---  12/30/1992

Science.  ---  Philosophy of science.  What exists, how do we know?  How does it work, how can we use it?  What works best?  How can we make life healthier and better?  ---  12/30/1992

Science.  ---  Problems some people have with science.  (1) They say that science does not take care of everything.  Science does not know everything.  Science does not address all questions.  For the questions it does address, science does not have all the answers.  (2) They say science is simply too much information to know.  (3) They say that science has a tendency to ignore, discount, devalue or discredit anything that it does not have a proof for.  (4) They say that science ignores ethics.  (5) They say that the ordinary person has no use for science.  (6) They say that knowledge is no good.  Too much knowledge is bad.  (7) They say that human scientific knowledge is outpacing human ethical reasoning.  (8) Some say that even though science has had big successes in the past 500 years it is not the only way to think about life, and that the arts are still useful.  ---  7/12/2001

Science.  ---  Problems with science: cold, impersonal, lacks ethics, lack of emotion.  Problems of lack of science: too emotional, not enough reason.  ---  12/30/1992

Science.  ---  Progressivism and science.  Progressive scientists get involved and speak out for Progressive views.  ---  5/5/2007

Science.  ---  Progressivism and science.  Scientists should think about politics and be active in politics.  For example, the Union of Concerned Scientists.  ---  4/15/2007

Science.  ---  Pseudo-science views.  Their adherents main argument is that science does not know everything.  Channelling.  ESP.  Seeing into the future: trances, dreams.  Possession.  Past lives.  Being able to move objects with mind.  Out of body experiences and travel.  Near death experiences.  Interference of the spirit world in our lives.  Speaking to the dead.  De ja vu.  Witches (alive).  Ghosts (dead).  Astrology.  ---  07/05/1997

Science.  ---  Pseudo-science.  Astrology is baloney.  Scorpios get discriminated against.  People feel frightened of scorpios for no good reason.  To make one sign out of the zodiac a poisonous animial, feared and reviled by many, is discriminatory.  ---  10/05/1997

Science.  ---  Pseudo-science.  Astrology.  The seasons affect our emotions.  And newborns are especially sensitive.  Astrology's so-called effect on our personality could be due to the sequence of seasons through out the formative years.  ---  10/05/1997

Science.  ---  Questions for sciences.  (1) What's known.  Facts.  Experimental proof.  How sure, arguments, evidence.  (2) What's theorized.  Concepts/theories.  Philosophical/logical proof.  How firmly believed.  ---  12/30/1992

Science.  ---  Related subjects, effects of and on.  (1) Sociology: society's perception of important of science.  (2) Psychology: type of personality that makes a good scientist.  (3) Religion: religion opposed to science, and science opposed to religion.  (4) Art: traditional dichotomy of reason and emotion.  (5) Tech: science evolves from technology, technology evolves from science.  (6) Economics: science enhances economics, and economics enhances science.  (7) Math: science laws quantified.  Data gathered quantified.  Measurement theory.  ---  12/30/1992

Science.  ---  Related subjects.  (1) Science and individual.  (2) Science and society.  Public funding of sciences.  Degree the public believes in the scientific method vs. degree public believes in magic.  (3) Science and ethics.  Scientists need to take ethical stands.  Science should not be 100% free of ethics.  ---  6/20/2004

Science.  ---  Related subjects.  Technology and science.  Development of science and technology is not linear, one affects other.  ---  12/30/1992

Science.  ---  Related subjects.  Technology and science.  Techniques used in science (especially latest and classic).  Techniques that evolve from our scientific knowledge gains (especially latest and most important).  ---  12/30/1992

Science.  ---  Relationships of specific sciences.  Hierarchy of sciences.  In order to understand society, understand psychology, understand biology, understand chemistry, understand physics.  Things exist together at once, not as separate sciences.  ---  12/30/1992

Science.  ---  Religion and science.  (1) One pro-science view is that there is a scientific (biological) cause of religious tendencies in man.  (2) Another pro-science view is that if you believe in some kind of divine and if you ignore science then you are ignoring the world the divine made.  ---  7/12/2001

Science.  ---  Science is necessary but not sufficient because philosophy and art are also required to understand the world.  ---  5/10/2007

Science.  ---  Science is one of the best ways to acquire truth.  Truth has many uses.  Truth is intimately connected to justice.  Truth helps us develop technology.  ---  7/12/2001

Science.  ---  Should government fund the sciences?  If science provides knowledge, and knowledge is power, and government is about power, then government must confront science.  ---  7/12/2001

Science.  ---  Should private corporations be forced to make their scientific discoveries public?  Practically speaking, they are forced to when they apply for patents.  ---  7/12/2001

Science.  ---  Some people say there is an scientific explanation for both art and religious behaviors.  ---  12/1/2001

Science.  ---  Some scientists are good at thinking up experiments to do.  Some scientists are good at analyzing and explaining experimental results.  ---  1/6/1999

Science.  ---  Some scientists ignore at their peril the following: (1) Anything that cannot be quantified.  (2) Anything that cannot have an experiment designed for it.  (3) Talking about emotions, words, or the humanities.  ---  4/22/1999

Science.  ---  Study of x.  Questions for all x.  Questions for all sciences.  Questions for all philosophy.  ---  12/30/1992

Science.  ---  Terms.  Hypothesis: a guess.  Theory: an explanation; descriptive/explanatory theories vs. proscriptive/normative theories.  Law: accepted theory (increasingly confirmed, substantiated, evidence).  Explore and discovery.  Fact: proven hypothesis.  Application.  Proof, disproof, lack of proof.  Truth, lies.  Knowledge, ignorance.  Skepticism.  Doubt vs. belief.  Fact vs. conjecture, hypothesis, belief.  ---  12/30/1992

Science.  ---  There are some things we think don't exist that do exist.  There are things that are real that humans don't know about yet, that we have yet to discover, due to our incomplete knowledge. But there are also some things we think exist that do not exist, because we are mistaken in some of our views.  ---  7/30/2005

Science.  ---  Think of scientific experiments to perform in all areas of knowledge.  (1) Sociology.  The interview call.  (2) Cognitive science.  The insect brain.  The fish brain.  (3) Physics.  Drop a brick to observe gravity.  (4) Biology.  Collect and classify specimens of living organisms.  (5) Chemistry.  Collect and classify specimens of materials.  Isolate elements.  Develop synthetic and analytic techniques.  ---  1/6/1999

Science.  ---  Trends.  Hot areas: biochemistry, neuroscience, computers.  Cold areas: political science, economics, sociology.  ---  01/06/1997

Science.  ---  Trends.  Most interesting areas of the sciences.  (1) Astronomy: origin and fate of universe.  (2) Physics: quantum theory (small) and relativity theory (big).  (3) Biology: evolutionary theory, origins of life, especially of humans, especially of consciousness, and language.  How far and fast can we develop?  (4) Ecology: save the earth.  ---  06/10/1993

Science.  ---  Trends.  The big questions in science.  (1) Biology: evolutionary theory, human evolution, consciousness, reason, language, genetic engineering.  (2) Physics: quantum, relativity, nature of matter, energy, space, time.  (3) Astronomy: origins and ends of universe.  (4) Chemistry: fusion, new materials, bio-chemistry, artificial life.  (5) Computer science: networking.  ---  12/30/1995

Science.  ---  Two important things.  (1) Science changes technology and thus society and psychology.  (2) Science changes our conception of metaphysical reality and thus our ethics.  ---  12/30/1992

Science.  ---  Two questions: To what extent can and should an individual apply the scientific method in their daily life?  To what extent should an individual know about the scientific method and the specific sciences?  Some answers: To the extent that the individual finds science interesting?  To the extent that the individual can understand and absorb the information?  ---  7/12/2001

Science.  ---  Understanding causal relationships without leaving out or making mistakes in causes and/or effects.  ---  12/30/1992

Science.  ---  What does and doesn't pass as science in a culture?  (1) Due to it being considered philosophy.  (2) Due to it being considered pseudosience.  (3) Due to it being considered myth magic or religion.  ---  12/30/1992

Science.  ---  What is science?  (1) Science is inductive reasoning.  (2) Science is a division of epistemology.  (3) Science is a refinement of thinking.  (4) Science is public knowledge: jury of peers with professional reputations on the line (economic survival promotes competition and therefore justice); experiments can be repeated successfully.  (5) Science is a way of thinking to describe, explain, predict.  ---  12/30/1992

Science.  ---  What is science?  (1) Some people consider science to be a part of epistemology, which is part of philosophy.  Science is a method of inquiry.  (2) Some people consider science to be a part of psychology.  (But psychology itself is suppossed to be a science.)  Science as a method of thinking.  ---  12/6/2005

Science.  ---  What is science?  Almost all people use a type of scientific method in everyday life, yet we do not call them scientists.  If science is a method rather than a job description then it does not refer only to professional scientists or even amateur scientists but also to everyday uses of the scientific method by ordinary people.  ---  4/17/2001

Science.  ---  What is science?  Important scientific principles can be proven by very simple demonstrations using ordinary items like a straw, cup and napkin.  Complexity is not required.  ---  4/17/2001

Science.  ---  What is science?  Science is:  Based on reason.  Based on logic.  Based on empirical observation.  Based on evidence.  Based on argument.  ---  6/22/2004

Science.  ---  What is science?  Three ways to define science.  (1) Science as a method.  The scientific method.  (2) Science as a standard.  That is, not pseudo-science, and not superstition.  (3) Science as a subject matter.  That is, not philosophy, and not art.  ---  1/1/2006

Science.  ---  What.  (1) Science as opposed to technology (pure knowledge vs. practical applications).  (2) Science as opposed to philosophy (experiment vs. argument).  (3) Science as opposed to religion (reason vs. belief).  (4) Science as opposed to art (exact, literal vs. figurative, metaphorical).  ---  4/17/2001

Science.  ---  What.  Common definitions of science: (1) Repeatable experiments.  (2) Falsifiable theories.  (3) Public publishing of results.  ---  4/17/2001

Science.  ---  What.  Rough definition.  Philosophy can be accomplished simply by thinking.  Science requires that we do something.  The experiment is a physical activity.  ---  1/6/1999

Science.  ---  What.  Science is about instruments.  How much could we know about the world without instruments?  Are not our eyes instruments?  Are not our brains instruments?  ---  11/30/1999

Science.  ---  What.  Science is ever current, ever new, due to new situations, new data, new problems, new phenomenon, new theories, and new facts.  ---  12/30/1992

Science.  ---  What.  Science is often a political power thing concerned with what do I want to prove (to further my interests), and how can I prove it.  Science is often not an open minded thing.  ---  04/21/1993

Science.  ---  What.  Standards.  (1) What counts as "science" vs. "pseudo-science".  (2) What counts as "good science" vs. "not as good science".  ---  6/20/2004

Science.  ---  What.  Standards.  The nature of science is this: A theory is considered "good science" until a better theory comes along, and then the old theory becomes "bad science" and the new theory becomes "good science".  ---  4/17/2001

Science.  ---  What.  Standards.  What qualifies as science and what does not qualify as science?  Many unwitting quacks and scheming charlatans use (faulty) logic and (poor) experimental design.  Thus, science is defined not just by a method but also by a standard.  ---  4/17/2001

Science.  ---  Why is science important, why do science (purpose)?  Knowledge is power, knowledge is health.  ---  12/30/1992

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Paul Nervy Notes. Copyright 1988-2007 by Paul Nervy.