OUTLINE by Paul Nervy Copyright (c) 2006 by Paul Nervy Visit www.paulnervy.com. wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww LEISURE Contents Leisure in general List of leisure activities Specific leisure activities Hiking, camping, backpacking Skateboarding Surfing Climbing History of Leisure wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww Leisure in general wwwwwwwwww Philosophy of leisure The metaphysics of leisure. The ethics of leisure. wwwwwwwwww Psychology and leisure. Positive aspects of leisure. Leisure as antidote to workaholism Negative aspects of leisure. The "leisure obsessed" mentality. The "jock" mentality. The "fan" mentality. wwwwwwwwww Sociology and leisure How many people spending how many hours at leisure, and spending how much money on leisure? List of leisure pursuits number of adherents percentage of population Sports fans. Tailgating. Face paint. Team rivalries. Crowds at leisure events Sports fan violence. Stadium stampedes. Disneyworld, and why I don't like it. Malls, and why I don't like them. wwwwwwwwww Politics, law and leisure. Leisure activities as a means to de-politicize people. Sports as an opiate. wwwwwwwwww Economics, business and leisure The leisure industry is big bucks The travel industry The sports industry The entertainment industry The restaurant industry The hotel industry. Economics of leisure How much money is spent on leisure in the U.S? How much time is spent on leisure in the U.S? wwwwwwwwww Work and leisure. The creation of the forty hour work week. Leisure time as a right. The right not to be forced to work sixteen hours a day, seven days a week. "After work" leisure. The creation of the weekend. Vacation or holiday leisure. wwwwwwwwww Technology of leisure Advances in technology increase the number of leisure activity options. wwwwwwwwww Sports Criticisms of high school sports. Criticisms of college sports Criticisms of professional sports Professional vs. amateur sports Violence and sports Sports as cause of violence or outlet of violence. Hockey. Football. Boxing. Ultimate fighting. Fan violence. Watching vs. playing sports. Women and sports Women denied sprots. Women thought inferior. Lynn Hill Race and sports Blacks kept out of professional baseball Blacks thought inferior with unfair disadvantage. Blacks thought superior with unfair advantage. Jack Johnson Jackie Robinson Mohammed Ali Arthur Ashe Tiger Woods Venus and Serena Williams wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww List of leisure activities Mental vs. physical activities. Cooperative vs. competitive activities. Individual vs. group activities. Indoor vs. outdoor activities. wwwwwwwwww Rest, relaxation, recuperation - leisure as inactivity Recreation - leisure as activity Sleeping Eating Fugging Partying - music, dancing, smoking, drinking and drugging Read and write Walk and talk. wwwwwwwwww Games Rock paper scissors. Tic tac toe. One two three shoot. Board games Chess Checkers. Chinese checkers. Backgammon. Monopoly. Life. Risk. Battleship. Scrabble. Yahtzee. Mahjong. Crossword puzzles. Card games Bridge. Poker. Gin Rummy. War. Kids games. Capture the flag. Tag. Hide and seek. wwwwwwwwww Sports Racing sports Foot races. Running. 100 meter dash. Marathon. Bicycle racing. Car racing. Motorcycle racing. Horse racing. Racket sports. Tennis Badminton Ping pong Squash Racket ball. Paddleball Handball Jai lai. Sports of the rich. Tennis Golf Polo Track and field. Running. Hurdles. High jump. Long jump. Pole vault. Discus Javelin Shot put Field sports. Lacrosse. Field Hockey. Capture the flag. Winter sports Snowboarding. Skiing. Downhill skiing. Cross country skiing. Sledding. Bobsled. Luge. Skating. Air sports. Sky diving. Parachuting. Base jumping. Gliding. Hang gliding. Parasailing. Motor plane racing. Aerobatics. Water sports. Swimming. Diving. Water polo Surfing Sailboarding. Scuba diving. Water skiing. Boating Sailing. Power boating. Submarining Canoing. River rafting. Extreme sports Bungee jumping Skateboarding - ramp and street Surfing big waves. Climbing. Hang gliding and para sailing vs. Traditional sports baseball football basketball hockey wwwwwwwwww Physical, non-competitive activities Non-sports. Pastimes. Self-competitive. Frisbee. Hackeysack. Hiking. Camping. Backpacking. Long distance hiking. Climbing. Mountain climbing. Rock climbing. Bouldering. Ice climbing. wwwwwwwwww Hunting. Bow hunting. Gun hunting. Fishing. Fly fishing. Ocean fishing. Skeet shooting Target shooting. Boxing. Wrestling. Martial arts. Judo. Tai kwan do. Karate. Grappling. Jujitsu. wwwwwwwwww Ethically dubious leisure activities Creulty to non-human animals Bear baiting. Cat torture. Bullfighting. Pit bull fighting. Rooster fighting. Hunting Cruelty to human animals Boxing wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww NOTABLE EVENTS IN SPORTS Jack Johnson Joe Louis Jackie Robinson Jesse Owens Bob Beamon Bill Russel Olympics Ultra-marathons Extreme sports wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww SPECIFIC LEISURE ACTIVITIES wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww SURFING wwwwwwwwww Surf spots Hawaii: Waimea, Sunset, Pipeline California: Mavericks Mexico: Todos Santos Indonesia: Bal Australia wwwwwwwwww Physics of surfing Physics of wave formation Storms Deep ocean waves Swell forecasting. Swell forecasting has become more sophisticated and accurate in recent years with the development of the Internet. Breaking waves Reef breaks Reef breaks are when a coral reef caused waves to form and break. Point breaks Point breaks are when an unevenness in the coastline causes waves to form and break. Beach breaks Beach breaks are when the rising shoreline causes waves to form and break. Physics of surfboard hydrodynamics Planing. Speed. Turning. wwwwwwwwww Surfboards Short boards Long boards Surfboard artwork. wwwwwwwwww Big wave surfing Tow-in surfing wwwwwwwwww History of Surfing. 1700's and before. Hawaiians surfing. 1800's. Europeans invade Hawaii. 1900. Duke Kahanamoku, famous Hawaiian surfer. 1930's and 40's. Southern Californians surfing on wood boards. 1950's. The fiberglass and foam surfboard. Wax. Wetsuits. Leashes. 1960's. Mass surf culture. Beach boys. Gidget. 1970's. Short board revolution. Pipeline tube ride. 1980's. Professional competitive surfing. 1990's. Tow-in surfing. wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww SKATEBOARDING Styles of skateboarding Street. Freestyle. Downhill Slalom Vertical Pools. Pipes. Parks. wwwwwwwwww History of skateboarding. 1950s and before. Metal roller skate wheels on two-by-fours 1960's. Clay wheels. Open bearings. Wood boards. The surfing fad. 1970's. Urethane wheels. Sealed bearings. Bennet and Tracker trucks. 1970's. Vertical skating. Pools, pipes and parks. 1980's. Street skating. Street tricks. Hand rails. 1980's. The double kick board. Symmetrical. Tiny wheels. 1990's. The Extreme games. wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww CLIMBING wwwwwwwwww Contents What do climbers climb? Where are the mountains? Why do climbers climb? Psychology and sociology of climbing. How do climbers climb? Ethics Style wwwwwwwwww What is climbing? wwwwwwwwww Why do climbers climb? Motivations for climbing. wwwwwwwwww What do climbers climb? Climbers climb mountains. Where are the mountains? Mountain ranges, climbing areas, mountains and routes Himalayas are a mountain range. Nepal. Tibet. Hindu Kush. Kashmir. India. Pakistan. Afghanistan. China. 8000 meter peaks in the Himalayas Everest. K2. Nanda Devi. Makalau. Cho Oyu Broad Peak Gasherbrum Kanchenjunga. Fifteen in all South America Andes: Aconcagua Patagonia: Cerro Torre. Cerro Fitzroy. Europe France: The Alps. Mount Blanc. Chamonix. Verdon Gorge. England: Gritstone. Scotland. Ben Nevis. Germany: Elber region of sandstone. Switzerland: Eiger. Italy: Dolomites. Russia. The Caucases. Africa. Mt. Kilimanjaro. Mt. Kenya. Atlas Mountains. Australia and New Zealand. Antarctica. North America Sierra Nevada Rocky Mountains Northeast. New York: Shawangunks, Adirondacks. New Hampshire: Cannon, Cathedral. California. Yosemite. Colorado. Boulder and Rocky Mountain National Park Alaska. McKinley. Hunter. Bugaboos. Baffin Islands. wwwwwwwwww How How do climbers climb? Climbing styles and climbing ethics Is climbing a style a matter of taste or a matter of ethics? Taste being that it doesn't matter what way you climb. If climbers paid as much attention to ethics in the rest of their life as they do to ethics in climbing then the world would be a better place. What does it matter how you climb? Well, it affects how other people will climb the route after you. Example, spray painting your name on the rocks. So that anyone looking at the cliffs sees your name. Climbing to within a few feet of the summit in order to respect the wishes of indigenous people who hold the mountain to be sacred. Climbing a route on your first try, without any falls. Climbing a route without beta. Beta being knowledge of the route gained from others before the climb. Doing a first ascent vs. climbing a route when its not the first ascent. Doing a first ascent and not telling anyone. Friends. Sticky rubber. Chalk. Are they cheating? Recent climbing advances. How much has recent advances been due to technological advances? For example How much has recent advancement been due to sticky rubber? How much has advancement been due to doping and steroids? How much as recent advancement been due to year-round training on indoor climbing walls? Hang dogging. Hang dogging is when you hang on the rope after you fall, instead of lowering to the ground to try the route again from the ground up, or at least from the belay up. The objection is that hang dogging is aid, and hang dogging is therefore a form of aid climbing, not free climbing. The counter argument is that if you fall on the 20th pitch, you are obviously not going to start from the ground up. Clean climbing Piton placing. Bolting. Chipping Gluing Clean climbing Passive protection Active cams Piton placing Placing fixed pins Placing and removing pins Bolting Placing bolts on the lead. Top-down bolting. Bolting on rapel. Chipping of holds. To create a hold To remove a hold Gluing of holds. To create a hold To remove a hold First ascent On sight ascent On sight first ascent Personal first ascent: with no guidebook and no beta. No information. Basic stylistic or ethical considerations. Bouldering. Barefoot bouldering without chalk or crash pads. In a loin cloth. Rock climbing - no ice. Ice climbing - no rock Mixed climbing - Mixed climbing involves climbing on both rock and ice. Solo climbing. Fall and that's all. Versus, roped soloing. Sport climbing. Bolted routes. Clip and go. Traditional climbing. No bolts. Place your own protection. Aid climbing. Support from anything other than the rock. Alpine climbing. Rock and ice. No fixed camps to resupply from. Rock climbing with no fixed camps. Expedition climbing. Making camps along the route of the climb. wwwwwwwwww History of Mountain Climbing History of the technology of climbing Rope (natural fiber). Ice axe. Nailed boots. 1800's. Crampons. 1900. Pitons and carabiners. 1910's. Synthetic ropes. 1950's. Nuts. Passive protection. 1970's. Cams. Spring loaded camming devices (SCLD). 1970's Ray Jardine invents Friends. History of major first ascents Early Unrecorded ascents Explorer ascents Scientist ascents Leisured aristocrat ascents. Mount Blanc Matterhorn Mt. McKinley. 1900. Aconcagua Eiger north face. 1930's. Everest. 1950's. First attempts. Mallory and Irving. 1920's First ascent. Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay. 1950's First ascent without oxygen. Messner and Habeler. 1970's First ascent solo and without oxygen. Messner. 1980's Fifteen peaks over 8000 meters climbed by Reinhold Messner. Highest peaks on all 7 continents. wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww Hiking, camping, backpacking Ten essentials water - canteen food compass map flashlight matches knife rain gear rope Basics equipment. Shoes. Running shoes. Pack. Tent. Tarp. Bivy sack. Sleeping bag. Blanket. Navigation How to travel without map and compass Sunrise (east) and sunset (west) Stars - the north star Going to a high point - view from mountain types. Going to low points - following streams downstream. What to do if you are lost. How to use a map and compass Finding your latitude and longitude First aid Cuts. Sprains. Broken bones. Psychology - when lost How to find food and water Water. Food. How to make camp Fire. Shelter. Toilet The elements and how to deal Cold. Avoiding frostbite and hypothermia. Heat. Avoiding heat exhaustion. Wind. Avoiding wind chill Altitude. Avoiding altitude sickness Rain. Staying dry and warm. Snow. Dealing with animals Rodents Skunks Porcupines Snakes Bears. Wolves. Mountain lion. Dealing with humans Lightweight backpacking Natural organic lightweight backpacking Wool, canvas and wood. No synthetics or metals. Backpacking within four walls Living simply, inexpensively, ecologically when off the trail. wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww Extreme sports Extreme sports are often performed with no team, no spectators, no powered, no commercial sponsors, no competition. List of extreme sports. Ultralight hiking. Trail running. Long distance backpacking. Rock climbing. Ice climbing. Mountain climbing. Skiing. Cross country skiing. Downhill skiing. Snowboarding. Back country skiing and snowboarding. No lifts. Hike in. Bicycle road racing. Mountain biking. Bicycle motorcross. Surfing. Big wave surfing. Surfing without a leash. Long board and short board. Boogie boarding. Body surfing. No board. Skateboarding. Extreme street skating. Vertical skating. Pools, pipes and parks. Inline skating. Ice skating. Parachuting. Skydiving. Base jumping. Parasailing. Parafoils with no frame. Pilot not enclosed. Hang gliding. Parafoils with a metal frame. Pilot not enclosed. Gliding. Winged planes with pilot enclosed. Ballooning. Running. Marathon running. Ultra-marathons. Ironman events (run swim bike) Sailing. Sailing solo around the world. (sort of like what I do) Kayaking. River rafting. Tubing. Scuba diving. wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww Traditional sports. Traditional sports are often performed as team sports, spectator sports, powered sports, commercially sponsored sports, competitive sports. Big business, corporate. Baseball Basketball Football Hockey wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww List of other major sporting events. Olympics Tour de France bicycling World Cup soccer Mount Everest Wimbledon tennis Golf's grand slam. Formula One motor racing Indianapolis 500 motor racing World Cup sailing Iron Man triathlon X games. Triple Crown horse racing. Cricket championships. Chess championships. World series of poker. Championship bridge. NBA championship basketball. World series baseball Stanley Cup hockey. Superbowl football wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww HISTORY OF LEISURE Leisure time in hunter-gatherer tribes The invention of the eight hour workday. The invention of the weekend. Disposable income. Leisure time. Leisure businesses. Resorts. The amateur. The professional. Sports goes corporate. Big business. Advertising. Paid product endorsements.