OUTLINE by Paul Nervy Copyright (c) 2006 by Paul Nervy Visit www.paulnervy.com. wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww MAGIC, MYTH, RELIGION Contents Magic Myth Religion Philosophy and science of religion Types of religions Elements of religion List of specific religions History of religions wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww MAGIC Magic (1) Magic can be defined as belief in things that are not real. (2) Magic can be defined as non-rational form of minding. (3) Magic can be defined as entertaining tricks, involving sleight of hand and other forms of illusion, done by a magician for an audience. Superstition Superstition is the belief that certain actions or events portend other events in a way unrelated to causation as described by empirical science. For example, it is a supersition that breaking a mirror will cause seven years of bad luck. Occult Rituals Spells. Incantations. Spells and incantations are spoken words intended to have a magical effect. Curses. Curses are spells intended to have a negative effect. Blessings Blessings are spells intended to have a positive effect. Potions. Love potions. Potions are mixtures intended to have a magical effect. Amulets. Charms. Good luck charms. Lucky charms. These are objects intended to have a magical effect. Shaman, witch-doctor A shaman is a person who has magical powers or who has a connection to the wwwwwwwwww Made-up supernatural entities Witch, Warlock Gnome, Elf, Troll Sprites. Pixies. Fairies. Demons. Banshees. Angels Ghosts Monsters. Vampires. Werewolves. Frankensteins. Devil God wwwwwwwwww Charlatans. Mountebanks. Snake oil salesmen. Attempts to see the future. Attempts to contact the dead. Astrology Astrology is the belief that the position of the stars effects events on earth. Tarot Tarot is the belief that a deck of cards can reveal the future. Palm readers Palm reading is the belief that looking at the palm of the hand can reveal the future. Spiritual mediums. Seances. Spiritual mediums are people who claim to be able to contact the dead. wwwwwwwwww Meaningless superstitions. Various vacuous bad luck superstitions. Don't walk on sidewalk cracks. Don't walk under ladders. Don't break a mirror. Various vacuous good luck superstitions. Find a penny and its good luck. Throw a pinch of salt over your shoulder. Horse shoe on the mantel. wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww MYTH wwwwwwwwww Myth A myth is a story that attempts to explain the world. Myths are not true. Myth as false. Myths are fictions. Myths are simply not true. Myth as truth. There is a little bit of truth in myths, some argue. Not really. wwwwwwwwww Myths of various cultures. Greek myths. Roman myths. Norse myths. wwwwwwwwww Types of myths Creation myths Creation of world Creation of man Creation of animals. End of the world myths After-life myths Before-life myths wwwwwwwwww Monster myths Werewolves Vampires Frankenstein Mummy Sea monsters Dragons Ghosts Witches Monster slayers: heroes wwwwwwwwww Common fears in humans that get incorporated into myths. Fear of heights. Fear of darkness. Fear of death. Fear of closed spaces. Fear of open spaces. Fear of snakes, spiders, bats, etc. wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww RELIGION Religion Religion can be defined as a social institution regarding the divine. Religions are comprised of people, practices, texts and objects. Religion can be defined as organized, shared, enduring beliefs regarding the divine. Religion can be defined as magic mixed with philosophy. Religion can be defined as organized magic and myth. Divine. The divine can be defined as ideas about anything that there is no evidence for. Also known as: the supernatural or god. God. God is type of idea regarding the divine. wwwwwwwwww Worldwide What percentage of people believe in the divine? What percentage of people pray? What percentage of people belong to a religion? What percentage of people are religious fanatics? What percentage of people are atheists? What percentage of people feel religion is not an important part of their lives? wwwwwwwwww Negatives of religion Social negatives Inquisition Religious Wars Social Intolerance Psychological negatives Psychological Repression Psychological Guilt Religious conflicts. What percentage of conflicts in the world are religious conflicts? wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGION wwwwwwwwww Proofs for existence of god(s) wwwwwwwwww Problem of evil. wwwwwwwwww Ethics. The rational, philosophical study of good and evil. Morals. Various ethical prescriptions held by various religions. wwwwwwwwww Science and religion No scientific evidence for god, heaven, hell, angels, etc. wwwwwwwwww Philosophy and religion Most religions have much philosophy built into them. In fact, strip most religions of philosophy and not much is left. Metaphysical claims. (the question, "What is there?") The nature of reality. The nature of the world. Beginning of world. End of world. Nature of humans or persons. Nature of mind. Epistemological claims (the question, "How do we know?") Personal inspiration of each adherent. Inspiration of religious founders. Sacred texts. Ethical claims. (the question, "What to do?" How to act. General principles. Specific instructions. wwwwwwwwww Claims of a multi-leveled reality. Our physical plane of existence. Non-physical planes of existence. Spirit world. Claims of a multi-staged reality. Before life. During life. After life. wwwwwwwwww Any rational arguments for the existance of god? Not really. Argument from Design. Argument: Universe has a high degree of order and complexity that can only be explained by god. Counter argument: Physical complexity can be explained by physical laws. Biological complexity can be explained by evolution. Cosmological Argument. Argument: God as first cause. Counter argument: What caused god? What came before god? Ontological argument. Argument: God defined as perfection. Perfection must exist. Counter argument: Who is to say what is perfection? What created god? What came before god? What came before the universe? Another universe? What comes after the universe? Another universe? Arguments against the existance of god. The problem of evil. Human evil. Naturally bad things. There is an argument that religion is about faith, not reason. Pascal's wager. wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww COMPARATIVE RELIGION The worldwide study of religions today. Study of religions no longer popular. Ancient religions. The life cycle of religions. What do all religions have in common? Do all religions point to the same thing? What is that thing? God? Religious experience? Ethics? wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF RELIGION Sociology and religion Religious groups. Dynamics of religious groups. Peer pressure Shunning. Ostracism. wwwwwwwwww Politics and religion. Religious groups try to acquire poltical power through the use of the votes of their adherents, and through the use of money. wwwwwwwwww Economics and religion. Religions have a loophole to avoid paying taxes. Religions try to get money from their adherents. wwwwwwwwww Psychology and religion Reports of religious experiences. Religious ideas. Religious emotions. Religious feelings. Religious attitudes. Ideas and emotions. Religious experience, reports of. Religious belief. Faith. wwwwwwwwww Neurology and religion Brain scans of people reporting religious experiences. wwwwwwwwww Biology and religion. The evolution of religion. Pascal Boyer's "Religion Explained". wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww TYPES OF RELIGIOUS VIEWPOINTS Atheism. Atheism is the view that there is no god. Atheism is not a religion, it is a view about religion. Agnosticism. Agnosticism is the view that we cannot tell either way whether there is a god or not. Agnosticism is not a religion, it is a view about religion. Humanism Humanism is the belief that helping humans in this world is most important. wwwwwwwwww Nature worship. Nature worship involves worshipping nature or some aspect of nature such as air, water, earth, fire, sun, moon, stars, plants or animals. Animism Animism is the view that many spiritual beings exist which can help or hurt humans. Totenism Totenism is the view that a person or group has a mystical relationship with a totem. A totem is an object such as a plant or an animal. Ancestor worship Ancestor worship means worshing the dead. wwwwwwwwww Mysticism. (1) Mysticism is the belief that divine revelation or divine inspiration can be obtained through certain behaviors, practices or lifestyles. Common practices include solitude, silence, stillness. (2) Mysticism is the belief that individual persons can have direct mystical experiences of the divine, rather than merely accepting the divine on faith or knowing about the divine intellectually. Gnosticism Gnosticism is a type of mysticism. wwwwwwwwww Monotheism. Monotheism is the belief in one god. Dualism. Dualism is the belief in god and devil. For example, the dualistic religions of Zorastrism, Manicheism. Polytheism. Polytheism is the belief that there are many gods. wwwwwwwwww Pantheism. (1) Belief that god is in all people. (2) Belief that god is in all living things. Plants, animals, humans. (3) Belief that god is everywhere, and in everything Theism. (1) Theism accepts god as a revelation. (2) Theism as the view that god is separate from the world but involved in the world (constrast with Pantheism). Deism. (1) Deism as the view that god is a reasonable belief. (2) Deism as the view that god is not involved in the world. wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww COMPONENTS OF RELIGIONS wwwwwwwwww Religion (organized, human ) People, institutions (groups), practices, artifacts, texts, etc. wwwwwwwwww People. Pastors. Rabiis. Priests. Monks. Nuns. wwwwwwwwww Practices. Behaviors. Gathering Prayer wwwwwwwwww Artifacts. wwwwwwwwww Texts. Creation of religious texts. Deeming texts holy vs. not. wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww Before life. Previous lives. After life. Heaven. Hell. Limbo. Purgatory. Reincarnation. wwwwwwwwww The start of the world. Beginnings. Creation The end of the world. Endings. Eschatology. Arguments for and against the existence of an afterlife and beforelife. wwwwwwwwww Asceticism. Monasticism. wwwwwwwwww Death. wwwwwwwwww Evil, problem of. wwwwwwwwww Fate. wwwwwwwwww Immortality. wwwwwwwwww Nature worship. Sun. Moon. Earth. wwwwwwwwww Salvation. wwwwwwwwww Time. wwwwwwwwww Trickster. wwwwwwwwww Shamanism. Witchcraft. Pagan Wicca. Wiccan wwwwwwwwww God Arguments for and against the existence of a god. Views of God as Eternal Omnipotent Omniscient Good always Arguments for existence of god Debates of nature of god wwwwwwwwww Predestination. Fate. wwwwwwwwww Sin. Original sin. wwwwwwwwww Reincarnation. wwwwwwwwww Soul Arguments for and against the existence of a soul. wwwwwwwwww Spirit world Arguments for a world beyond our apprehension Beyond the naked eye Beyond the current and future tools of science Arguments for a world beyond the laws of physics The laws of physics change as humans learn more Ex. quantum action at a distance. wwwwwwwwww Non-believers. Heretics Blasphemers Infidels wwwwwwwwww Fanatics. Zealots. Extremists. Religious fanatics are people who will resort to violence and other forms of injustice to promote their religious views and to demote the differing views of others. Guru Yogi Buddha wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww LIST OF RELIGIONS wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww Buddhism. Founder: Sidhartha Guatama. The Buddha. Text: The Sutras. Practice: Meditation. Types of Buddhism. Hinayana - small vehicle Mahayana - great vehicle Vajrayana - tantric Buddhism The four noble truths. Life is pain. Pain is caused by desire. Pain can be ended. Zazen is the way to end pain. The eightfold path. Right understanding. Right thought. Right speech. Right action. Right livelihood. Right effort. Right mindfulness. Illusionary nature of life and reality. Challenging All things connected. No individuals. Challenging the self. Challenging the mind. Meditation (Buddhist). Arhat. Guide in Hinayana. Bodhisattva. Guide in Mahayana. Siddha. Guide in Vajrayana. Dharma. Karma. Mandala (a visual mantra). Mantra. Tantrism. Indian Buddhism. Tibetan Buddhism Chinese Buddhism. Japanese Buddhism. South East Aisan Buddhism. Theravada. Buddhism in America. Yogi Lama Guru Sutras. The sutras are the teaching of the Buddha, written by his disciples. Nirvana. Cessation of suffering. Samsara. Suffering. Individuals Sidhartha Guatama. Naropa Mitrea Vimalakirti Texts Dhamapada Prajnaparamita Heart Sutra Diamond Sutra Songs of Milarepa Tibetan Book of the Dead wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww Zen Buddhism Founder: Bodhidharma Texts: Practice: Zazen. Sitting and meditating. Types of Zen Rinzai Soto Satori. Enlightenment. Koans Individuals Bodhidharma. Brought Buddhism to China. Started Zen Buddhism. Huineng Dogen. Bankei. Texts Shobogenzo. A book of koans. Blue Cliff Record. Another collection of koans. Han Shan. Wrote the Cold Mountain poems. wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww Taoism. Founder: Lao Tzu. Text: The Tao de Ching. Practice: The Way. wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww Confucianism. Founder: Confucius Text: Analects Practice: wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww Islam. Founder: Mohammed Text: Koran Person: Imam. Practice: Praying five times a day. Place: Mosque Moslem. Five pillars of Islam. One god is Allah. Mohamed is his prophet. Mohammed Mohammed was the founder of Islam. The Koran. The Koran is the holy book of Islam. The Koran was written by Mohammed. Mecca Mecca is the Moslem holy city. One of the pillars of Islam is to make a pilgramage to Mecca. Sects of Islam. Shia. Fundamentalist. Conservative. 9% Sunni. Moderate. 90% of Islams. Sufi. Mystical. 1% wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww Hindu. Founder: Texts: Practice: Person: Place: Cow as sacred. Ramayana. The Ramayana is an epic Indian poem. Mahabarata. The Mahabarata is an epic Indian poem. Vedas. The Vedas are ancient Indian religious texts. Ex. Rig Veda. Sutras. The Sutras are Buddhist religious texts. Ex. Diamond sutra. Heart sutra. wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww Jain Jainism is a branch of Hinduism. Jains respect all life. They try not to kill anything. wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww Sikh Sikhism is a branch of Hinduism. wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww Bahai Founder: Started in 1800's. Eclectic. Recognizes all religions. Seeks to find the similarities between all religions. wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww Judaism. Founder: Moses. Text: The Torah. The Old Testament. Person: Rabbi. Can marry. Place: Temple Types of Judaism. Reformed. Conservative Orthodox. Kosher. Anti-Semitism. Holocaust Kabbala. Kabbala is a form of Jewish mysticism. wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww Protestantism Founder: Luther. Text: The bible. Old testament and new testament. Person: No guide needed. Minister. Can marry. Place: Church Types of Protestantism Lutheran. Methodist. Episcopalians Baptists Unitarians Luther rebelled against Catholicism. No priest needed. No pope needed. No church needed. Good works, not faith. Fundamentalists Pentacostals Evangelicals Born agains wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww Catholicism Founder: Jesus. Text: The bible. Old testament and new testament. Person: Priest. Practice: Mass. Building: Church wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww Mysticism The mystical traditions of the major religions are sometimes dubbed heretical by the orthodoxy. Islamic mysticism: Sufi. Ex. Rumi the poet. Jewish mysticism: Kabala. Christian mysticism: Gnostic gospels. wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww Ancient Egyptian religions. Ancient Egyptian gods. Isis. The mother goddess. Osirus. Horus. Ra. Seth. Notions of the afterlife. Pyramid building. Notions of animals as divine. Bird headed gods. Dog headed gods. Notions of a trinity. Notions of specific humans as divine. The pharaoh. Notions of monotheism. Akenaten. Notions co-opted from ancient Egyptian religion by later religions like christianity. Notions of the divine as a mother rather than a father. Nag Hamadi Gnosticism - knowledge of the divine via self knowledge. Gospel of Thomas. wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww American Indian Religions. wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww African Religions. wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww Australian Aboriginal Religions. wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww Some recent religions Founded by who, where, when. Basic views. Quakers Shakers Seventh Day Adventists Christian Scientists Mormons, Church of Later Day Saints. Scientologists Amish Mennonites Hare Krishna. Moonies. wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww History of religion. -30000 Cave people - earliest evidence of religion. Ceremonial burial. ? Earliest forms of polytheism. ? Earliest forms of recorded monotheism. -5000. Egyptians. Ancient Egyptian religons -5000. Vedic tradition. 5000 BC. The Vedas. Rig Veda. -2000. Hinduism. ? Zoroastrianism. The first monotheistic religion. -1000. Judaism. -500. Taoism - Lao Tzu. -500. Buddhism - the Buddha. -500. Confucianism - Confucius. -500. Zoroastrianism - Zoroaster. ? Zen. 0. Catholics - Jesus. 600. Islam - Mohammed. 1500. Protestants. Martin Luther 1800. Mormons. 1900. Hare Krishnas. Merton, Thomas. Ouspensky. Gurdjieff Buber, Martin. Tillich, Paul. Niebur, Rheinhold. Is there no end to new religions each claiming to be the one true way and each vowing to destroy the infidels?