OUTLINE by Paul Nervy Copyright (c) 2006 by Paul Nervy Visit www.paulnervy.com. wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww PHILOSOPHY wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww Contents Philosophy in general. Meta-philosophy. Epistemology Ethics Metaphysics Continental philosophy Eastern philosophy History of Philosophy. wwwwwwwwww Other areas of philosophy in other sections of the Outline. Philosophy of Mind (see Psychology) Logic (see Psychology) Philosophy of Language (See Linguistics) Philosophy of Science (see Science) Philosophy of Technology (see Technology) Philosophy of Social Science (see Sociology) Political philosophy (see Politics) Philosophy of Law (see Law) Economic philosophy (see Economics) Philosophy of Math (see Math) Philosophy of History (see History) Aesthetics and the philosophy of Art (see Art) wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww Tags for philosphy For any word, concept or viewpoint. <What is it>: <Who held it>: <When did it develop> <Where did it develop> <Arguments for it>: <Arguments against it>: <Is a type of>: What supercategory does this concept belong to? <Types of>: What subcategories are there for this concept? <Similar to> What are the related views. Akin to what. Synonyms. <Contrast to>: What is the opposite view? What are the antonyms. wwwwwwwwww For any philosopher <Biographical data> When, where. <What <Major works> <Major ideas> wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww META-PHILOSOPHY. Philosophy of philosophy. wwwwwwwwww What is philosophy? Philosophy Philosophy described as logical thinking, as oppossed to blind belief, and as opposed to illogical thinking. wwwwwwwwww Philosophy as distinct from science. Philosophy as distinct from art. Philosophy as distinct from religion. wwwwwwwwww Philosophy as logical analysis. Russel. Wittgenstein. Is logical analysis all philosophy is? No. Philosophy as linguistic analysis. Ordinary language philosophy. Is linguistic analysis all philosophy is? No. Philosophy as conceptual analysis. wwwwwwwwww Philosophy as above the sciences. Vs. Philosophy as cohort of the sciences. Philosophy as rational, critical thinking. Philosophy as thinking about thinking. A second-order topic. wwwwwwwwww Philosophy as Big picture. Everything. Philosophy as Foundational ideas. Basics. wwwwwwwwww Change of definition of philosophy through time. Aristotle - philosophy as reasoning. Thinking, of any type. Before the split from the sciences. After the Renaissance the sciences began to split off from philosophy. Philosophy as Metaphysics, Epistemology and Ethics. Wittgenstein - philosophy as removal of conceptual confusion. wwwwwwwwww Areas of philosophy Metaphysics Epistemology Ethics Aesthetics Philosophy of the natural sciences. Philosophy of physics. Philosophy of biology. Philosophy of psychology. Philosophy of mind. Social philosophy Political philosophy. Philosphy of law. Philosophy of economics. Philosophy of Philosophy of language. Philosophy of math. Realms of philosophy 1. Philosophy of Math, Logic and Language. 2. Philosophy of mind. Epistemology. Philosophy of science. 3. Ethics. Social philosophy. Political philosophy. Philosophy of law. wwwwwwwwww How to do philosophy? Methods of philosophy: analyze, evaluate, explain, clarify, arguments. wwwwwwwwww Why do philosophy? wwwwwwwwww Key concepts in philosophy Mind Truth Justice Meaning Language Value World. Reality. wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww EPISTEMOLOGY wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww Epistemology Epistemology is the branch of philosophy that studies the concepts of knowledge, belief, etc. Epistemology as a prelude to the philosophy of science. (See also: Science, philosophy of science. See also: Sociology, philosophy of social sciences.). Epistemology as akin to psychology of thought. Reason. Reason means thinking logically. Rationality A rational being is one capable of reason. A completely rational being is one that is rational all the time. Thinking Thinking as the use of inference. Inference. Inference as moving from premises to conclusions. Methodology. The techniques by which one tests one's beliefs. Belief testing. Evidence. Empirical evidence. Argument. An argument should be logical and it should be supported by empirical evidence. Logic Logic is the study of valid argument. Logic is the study of truth preserving argument forms. wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww MAJOR DICHOTOMIES IN EPISTEMOLOGY Empiricism vs. rationalism Coherentism vs. Foundationalism. A priori vs. a posteriori Subjective vs. objective Analytics vs. synthetic Idealism vs. Realism Internalism vs. externalism wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww MAJOR AREAS OF EPISTEMOLOGY Philosophical knowledge. Scientific knowledge. Arts and epistemology. Paranormal knowledge claims and pseudo-science. Epistemology and religion. ETHICS AND EPISTEMOLOGY Ethics and epistemology Moral epistemology Virtue epistemology Fact/value distinction. Can not derive values from facts. PSYCHOLOGY AND EPISTEMOLOGY Sensation. Perception. Empiricism. Memory. Association. Emotion and knowledge Thinking. Rationality. Reasoning. Logic. Categories, classification, schemata, scripts. Behavior. Behaviorism. Experience. First hand experience. Consciousness. Self awareness. Self. Private language vs. Other minds. SOCIOLOGY AND EPISTEMOLOGY Epistemology of social sciences Sociology of knowledge. Second hand experience. Knowledge from others. Power and knowledge. Foucault. Ideology. Propaganda. Power shapes accepted truths. Communication and epistemology. Language and epistemology. Knowledge based on words instead of numbers. Texts. Literary criticism. Understanding. Interpretation and translation. MATH AND EPISTEMOLOGY Mathematical knowledge Mathematical proof. Quantified knowledge. Arithmetic. Numbers. Geometry and other formal axiomatic systems. Probability, statistics, bayesianism HISTORY AND EPISTEMOLOGY Historical knowledge Historicism. RELIGION AND EPSITEMOLOGY Religious belief, epistemology of wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww Truth Truth is a property of sentences, statements, propositions or beliefs. There are various theories of truth that attempt to describe truth. Theories of truth can be divided into inflationary and deflationary theories. Inflationary or substantive theories of truth hold that the word "truth" itself has meaning and import. Inflationary theories of truth include the correspondence theory of truth, the coherence theory of truth, and the pragmatic theory of truth. Deflationary theories of truth ascribe less importance to the word truth. Deflationary theories of truth include the redundancy theory of truth, the prosentential theory of truth, the disquotational theory of truth, and the minimialist theory of truth. Correspondence theory of truth. Correspondence theories of truth hold that truth reflects a correspondence between a statement and reality. Who holds it: Early Wittgenstein had a "picture theory" of truth. Arguments for it. Arguments against it: Coherence theory of truth. The coherence theory of truth says a belief is true if it fits into, or coheres with, a system of beliefs. Truths must fit together. Truths must not contradict each other. Who holds it: Bradley and Blanchard. Arguments for it: Counterarguments: (A) The whole system can be false. (B) The coherence theory of truth leads to relativism about truth. "True for me but not for you". Pragmatic theory of truth. What is it: Pragmatic theories of truth hold that truth is what works. The pragmatic theory of truth says that truth is usefulness. If a belief is useful then it is true. Who holds it: C. S. Peirce. William James. John Dewey. Arguments for it. Arguments against it: Sometimes lying to yourself works. And a lie is not a truth. Some things are useful to believe but not true. Redundancy theory of truth. The "no theory" theory of truth. Who holds it: Gottlieb Frege. Frank Ramsey. Prosentential theory of truth. Who holds it: Grover. Belnap. Disquotational theory of truth.. Minimalist theory of truth. Paul Horwich on truth. Semantic theories of truth. Semantic theories of truth base truth on meaning. As oppossed to basing meaning on truth. Alfred Tarski's semantic theory of truth. Applies only to artificial, formal languages. Davidson on truth. Quine on truth. Verificationist view of truth. Only things for which we have empirical evidence are true. Objectivist view of truth. There is objective truth. Realist. Truth does not vary with the individual or culture. Contrast with: subjectivist view of truth. Subjectivist view of truth. Each person has their truth. "True for me" means "I believe that". Contrast with: objectivist view of truth. wwwwwwwww Truth and other areas. Epistemology and truth. Some people view truth as an epistemological property or a scientific property. Ethics and truth. Are there ethical truths? Logic and truth. Some people view truth as a logical property. Math and truth. Language and truth. What is the relationship between meaning and truth? Some people try to describe meaning in terms of truth. Some people try to describe truth in terms of meaning. wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww True or false is a matter of logic. True or false is also a matter of epistemology and science. Exists or does not exist, is a matter of metaphysics or science. Good and bad is a matter of ethics. Right and wrong is a matter of ethics. wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww Knowledge We claim to have knowledge when we claim to understand the world. Tripartite analysis of knowledge. The tripartite analysis of knowledge is the view of knowledge as justified, true belief. Knowledge is a belief. Knowledge is a true belief, as oppossed to a false belief. Knowledge also involves having a justification for holding a true belief, because otherwise it may just be a lucky guess. Gettier problems Gettier problems are counter-examples of the tripartite analysis of knowledge. wwwwwwwwww Knowledge from Sense and Perception Knowledge from Memory Knowledge from Thinking Knowledge from Emotion (emotional knowledge) wwwwwwwwww Knowing in philosophy Knowing in the sciences Knowing in texts Knowing in non-fiction texts Knowing in fiction texts Knowing in the arts The arts are seen as fictions, but works of art about actual events (ex. Picasso's Guernica) are not. wwwwwwwwww Knowledge that vs. knowledge how. wwwwwwwwww Causal theories of knowledge Reliability theories of knowlege. Reliablism Reliablism is a form of epistemological externalism. Sources of knowledge: Sources of knowledge include sensation and perception, memory, introspection, and reason (either inference or apriori). Degrees of knowledge. Areas of knoweldge. wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww Belief Belief means to think something true. (1) One can believe with or without justification. Believing with justification is better than believing without justification. (2) One can believe something to be the case when it actually is the case, and that is a true belief. A person can believe something when it is not the case, and that is a false belief. Certainty Certainty means to lack any doubt. Doubt To doubt means to think otherwise, to think critically, to consider alternative viewpoints. Skepticism. To be skeptical means to doubt. Skepticism as doubt. Skepticism is open minded. The alternative to skepticism is either blind belief or closed mindedness, both of which are bad. Types of skepticism. Knowledge skepticism. Knowledge skepticism is doubt about knowledge. Knowledge skepticism can be global or local. Justification skepticism. Skepticism as doubt about justification. Belief skepticism. Skepticism as doubt about belief Skepticism regarding the future. How do we know the future will be like the past. Problem of induction (Hume). Skepticism regarding the past. The past could all be an illusion. Skepticism regarding self. I could be a brain in a vat that thinks it has a body. Skepticism regarding other minds. Other people could be robots or zombies. Skepticism regarding the external world. I could be dreaming all this I see. Solipcism. Solipcism is complete skepticism on all topics. Critical thinking. wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww Proof Types of proof, by subject area. Logical proof. Mathematical proof. Scientific proof. Degrees of proof Proof as a argument that must hold. (see logical proof and mathematical proof) Proof as an argument that is persuasive. (see scientific proof) Proof is often based on some combination of evidence and argument. Various types and standards of truth and proof. Science - see science. Logic - see psychology Law - see Law. Legal proof, degrees of. Math - see Math. Mathematical proof. Journalism - see literature. Standards of journalistic proof. wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww Argument A logical argument persuades by reason. A rhetorical argument persuades by emotional appeal. wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww Evidence Evidence is a physical fact that supports an argument or theory. Evidence is usually physical in nature. Testimony by witnesses is another type of evidence. Evidence is an empirical concept. Evidence is used in science. Evidence is also a legal term. wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww Justification Justification as the reasons why you hold a belief. It is important that one's belief be justified and true, so as to acheive knowledge. Justification Non-normative conceptions of justification Normative conceptions of justification Deontological conceptions of justification. Roderick Chisholm. Non-deontological conceptions of justification. William Alston. Justification Coherentism Foundationalism. Tries to find basic beliefs. Contextualism. Holism. Infinite regress of justification. Justification Epistemic justification Ethical justification. wwwwwwwwww Warrant Warrant as synonymous with Justification. Judgment Criteria Common sense wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww Rationalism Rationalism is the view that we can know things based on deductive inference. Major eighteenth century rationalists include Rene Descartes and Leibniz. Rationalists hold that some knowledge is not from sense experience. For example, the knowledge of math and philosophy. We can know it by pure reason. Apriori knowledge is not based on sense experience. Contrast with: empiricism. Empiricism Empiricism is the view that sense and perception is how we acquire all our knowledge. For example, John Locke held the view that humans are blank slates at birth. The major British empircists of the eighteenth century were John Locke and David Hume. Aposteriori knowledge is based on experience. Contrast with: rationalism. Rationalism vs. Empiricism is not the same as nature vs. nurture. Nature - knowledge is innate. Ex. chomsky. Nurture. knowledge is learned. Blank slate. We are 100% learned. Empiricism. Aposterori. Rationalism. Apriori. Independent of experience. Math and logic. Innnate wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww Analytic vs. synthetic (logic) A priori vs. a posteriori (epistemology) Necessary vs. contingent (metaphysics) Definitions of each Examples of each Combinations of each Kants view wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww Analytic. (1) Analystic truths are logically necessary truths. Analytic truths include truth by definition, for example, it is true that a bachelor is an unmarried male. Another type of analytic truth occurs in math, for example, "1 + 1 = 2". Math and logic were viewed by some to be irrefutable, and thus better than science. (2) Analytic statements are verifiable independent of experience. By this definition, analytic statements are associated with the apriori and rationalism. Synthetic. (1) Synthetic truths are truths that are not logically necessary. Synthetic truths are contingent truths. Synthetic truths are true by inference (?), for example via syllogism. (2) Synthetic statements are verifiable only based on experience. By this definition, synthetic statement are associated with the aposteriori and empiricism. A priori To know something a priori is to know something independent of experience. Rationalism is sympathetic to the a priori view of knowledge. A posteriori. To know something a posteriori is to know something based on experience. Empiricism is sympathetic to a posteriori view of knowledge. Quine attacked the distinction between analytic and synthetic statements in "Two Dogmas of Empiricism". Thus, Quine also attacked the disinction between apriori and aposteriori, and he also attacked the distinction between rationalism and empiricism. wwwwwwwwww Coherentism Coherentism is the view that our knowledge of the world is like a web, and that changes in one area of knowledge cause changes in other areas of knowledge. Contrast with: foundationalism. Holism Holism is a name for several similar views. Holism, in the area of epistemology, is similar to coherentism. There are other types of holism, for example, holism in the area of language and meaning. We understand words only in relation to other words. We understand sentences only in relation to other sentences. Foundationalism Foundationalism is the view that our knowledge of the world builds on a foundation of basic beliefs. Contrast with: coherentism. Naturalized epistemology. Naturalized epistemology is the view that the concepts of epistemology can be fit into the conceptual structure of the natural sciences, specifically, into psychology. Who holds it: Quine, Kornbluth. Developmental epistemology. Developmental epistemology studies the development of epistemological capabilities of the human individual as it develops from infant to adult. Psychology has taken over much of this area. Evolutionary epistemology. Evolutionary epistemology is an aspect of naturalized epistemology. (1) The acquisition of knowledge follows an evolutionary pattern. (2) Humans have acquired their knowledge gaining capability over millions of years of evolution. Perception Any theory which bases knowledge on experience, for example empiricism, must take into account human sense and perception. Before the psychologists took up this subject the philosophers had a crack at it. Philosophical theories of perception include direct realism, indirect realism and phenomenalism. Direct realism. Direct realism, or naive realism, is a theory of perception that holds that we percieve things directly as they really are. Indirect realism. Indirect realism, or the representitive theory of perception, is a theory of perception that holds that the view that we perceive the world indirectly through the filter of our mind. Phenomenalism. Phenomenalism is a theory of perception that holds that Truth and epistemology. Epistemology is about knowledge. Knowledge has truth as one of its components. Language and epistemology. What is propositional knowledge? Knowledge is made of words. Ethics and epistemology. (1) One way to look at the relation between ethics and epistemology is to construe epistemology as an ethical endeavor, in that it is an ethical good to search for knowledge. Epistemology is a normative pursuit. (2) Another way to look at the relation between ethics and epistemology is to construe ethics as an epistemological endeavor, and look at the epistemological reasoning behind our ethical decisions. Metaphysics and epistemology. Epistemological pursuits change metaphysical systems. Probability and epistemology Much, perhaps most, of our knowledge is based on statistical inference. One can argue that each time we experience something, it is increasing our statistical confidence. In this respect, all empirical knowledge is a matter of statistical confidence. Indeed, much evidence is presented in terms of statistical probabilities. For example, the chance of dying of any particular disease. Familiarity with the mathematical areas of probability, statistics and bayesianism is in order. Hope Hope is a attitude about the future. (1) Hope as a wish. Hope meaning to wish it will be so. (2) Hope as a belief that it may be so. Hope as believing it will be so, based on some justification. Faith Faith as blind belief. Faith as belief without justification. I am not a fan of faith. (1)(A) Non-religious faith is faith regarding non-religious topics. (B) Religious faith is faith regarding religious topics. (2) Faith confused with other concepts. (A) Faith as confused with trust. (B) Faith as confused with hope. Solipsism Solipcism is a position regarding epistemology. The solipcist says we cannot know anything. What does the solipcist know? Solipcism is bogus. Similar to the nihilist position in ethics. Sophist (1) In ancient Greece the sophists were a school of rhetoric. (2) Today, sophist is a pejoritive term. A sophist is one who aims to persuade through rhetorical ploys like pseudo-logica and emotional appeals. One who teaches people how to argue in order to make money rather than pursue wisdom. Cynicism (1) Cynics in ancient Greece, for example, Diogenes, were those who lived simply, deflated hypocrites, and challenged societies mediocre values. Cynicism, in this sense of the word, is a good thing. (2) Today, the word cynical often means those with a negative attitude who see the worst side of everything. Cynicism, in this sense of the word, is bogus. Nihilism Nihilism is a position regarding ethics. The nihilist cares about nothing. The nihilist thinks nothing has value. Nihilism is bogus. Similar to the solipcist position in epistemology. Dogmatism Dogmatism can mean one who holds a belief without thought. One who clings to blind belief in the face of a convincing contrary argument. Dogmatism is bogus. Intuitionism Intuitionism holds that we know something by intutition. Now, what is intuition? Intuitionism is bogus because it is a fall back to to a vaguery. Mysticism Mysticism is the view that we know things directly through divine revelation to the individual. Mysticism is bogus because its a fall back to notions of the divine. Internalism Internalism, in regard to meaning, or to perception, is the view that mental content is not dependent on any phenomenon external to the mind. Contrast to: externalism. Externalism Externalism, in regard to meaning, or to perception, is the view that mental content is dependent on things outside the mind. Meaning may depend on social usage. Perception may depend on . Contrast to: internalism. Relativism, epistemological. Epistemological relativism is the view that what counts as knowledge is relative to either an individual, or a society, or humans in general. Moral epistemology Moral epistemology answers questions about how we know wether our moral decisions are correct. Feminist epistemology Feminist epistemology is a critique of mainstream (male) epistemology. Pragmatism and epistemology. Pragmatism has a view of epistemology that says truth is what works and knowledge is what works. wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww EPISTEMOLOGY THEORISTS Rationalists. Descartes. Spinoza. Empiricists. Locke. Hume. Kant. Pragmatists. Charles Sanders Pierce William James John Dewey. Truth and meaning. Tarski. Verificationist. Davidson, Donald. Grice, Paul Vienna Circle. Logical positivists. Rudolph Carnap Carl Hempel. Neurath, Otto. Schlick, Moritz Continental views of epistemology. Hermeneutics. Critical theory. Existentialists. Foucault - power shapes truth. Derrida - meaning and thus truth is shifting. Evolutionary epistemology Developmental epistemology Naturalized epistemology Feminist epistemology 20th century Sellers, Willard. Chisholm, Roderick Quine, WVO Goodman, Nelson Putnam, Hilary Alston, William. Armstrong, David. Blanshard, Brand. Firth, Roderick. Rescher, Nicolas. Sellars, Wilfred. wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww ETHICS wwwwwwwwww Ethics. Ethics is the study of right and wrong action. Ethics is the study of good and bad. Three areas of ethics are meta ethics, normative ethics and applied ethics. Terminology: Ethics versus morals. Terminology: Actions are right or wrong. States of affairs are good and bad. See also: Political philosophy. Philosophy of law. wwwwwwwwww Ethics by subject areas - (see specific subjects) Social ethics Political ethics Law (Law being applied politics) Ethics of Economics Business ethics (Business being applied economics) Ethics of science Ethics of technology wwwwwwwwww Areas of ethics Meta ethics Meta ethics is the study of the concepts used in ethics. Normative ethics. Normative ethics is the things we ought to pursue. Applied ethics. Applied ethics is applying ethics to specific situations or problems. wwwwwwwwww Meta ethics. What is the nature of good? G.E. Moore's view of good as a basic, unanalyzable concept. Good and bad. Right and wrong. How do we know what we mean when we use the words good and bad? How do we know what acts are good and bad? (1) We reason it out. Reason based ethics. Moral reasoning. Emotion aids our reasoning. Language aids our reasoning. (2) Evolution had an affect on our development of ethical ideas. The environment and our bodies had an effect on our development of ethics. See ideas about evolutionary ethics. (3) Other people, called emotivists, argue that ethics is completely a matter of emotion, and hold the view that ethics is only an emotional reaction. (4) Other people, called religious fanatics, argue that ethics is from god as revealed through some book or person. wwwwwwwwww Outline of main topics in ethics Meta ethics The nature of the good (and bad). Good as an unanalyzable, basic concept. (GE Moore) Theories of the nature of right (and wrong) action. Utilitarianism (Bentham, Mill) Contractarianism (Locke, Rousseau) Formalism. (Kant) Epistemology and ethics. How do we know about ethics? Cognitivist views. We know of ethics through reason. Empiricist views of ethics. We know of ethics through aposterori sense data. Rationalist views of ethics. We know of ethics through apriori reasoning. Kantian views. Categorical imperitive. (Kant) Noncognitivist views. Emotivism. We know of ethics through our emotions. (A.J. Ayer. T. Nagel.) Prescriptivism. Ethics involves prescibing courses of action. (R.M. Hare) Ethical skepticism. Metaphysics and ethics. What is the nature of ethics? Ethical realism (aka ethical objectivism). Ethics is objective. Ethics is mind independent. Ethical naturalism. We know about ethics through science. Evolutionary analysis of ethics. Analysis of ethics based on psychological health. Ex. E. O. Wilson. Ethical non-naturalism. We know about ethics through ways other than science. Ethical inutitionism. We know about ethics through intuition. (G.E. Moore. W.D. Ross.) Ethical antirealism (aka ethical irrealism or ethical idealism). Ethics is not objective. Ethical subjectivism. Ethics is mind dependent. Ethical relativism. Situational relativism. Ethics depends on the situation involved. Individual relativism. Ethics depends on the persons involved. Cultural relativism. Ethics depends on the culture involved. Various lists and rankings of things good and bad. Good things. Honesty. Justice. Truth. Fairness. Equality. Liberty. Bad things. Murder. War. Untruth. Dishonesty. Lying Stealing. Cheating. Injustice. wwwwwwwwww Naturalism Naturalistic fallacy: deriving values from facts, deriving "ought" from "is". Utilitarianism. <What is it> Utilitarianism says the good is whatever produces the greatest happiness for the greatest number. Maximize utility. Who held it: Jeremy Bentham. John Stuart Mill. <Arguments for it> Utilitarianism doesn't look to the bible or the customs of society to determine right from wrong, and that is progress. <Arguments against it> Rights-based theories of ethics argue that we should uphold the inalienable rights of minorities in the face of strictly utilitarian arguments to take those rights away in the name of some greater benefit. Another argument against utilitarianism is that utilitarianism ignores or downplays the following ethical phenomena: justice, desert, moral rights, moral rules, motive or cause, character or virtue. <Types of>: Positive and negative utilitarianism. Act utilitarianism and rule utilitarianism. Is a type of: Utilitarianism is a consequentialist view. Right actions produce happiness or well being as a consequence or effect. Wrong actions produce misery as a consequence or effect. Prima facie duties The ethics of prima facie duties is the view that some things are always Who held it: W. D. Ross in Rights Theories. Human rights. Citzen's rights. Who held it: J. Rawls. R. Dworkin. Natural Law. A view in the philosphy of law. The view that law is based on some pre-defined order, whether is be that of nature, human nature, god, etc. Who held it: J. Finnis. Kantian ethics. Categorical imperative. Universal laws of reason. Social contract. Contractarianism. Constitutionalism. Who held it: Burke, Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau. Virtue ethics. Virtue ethics is a view of ethics that focuses on character traits rather than actions. Virtue ethics focus on personality traits and other psychological phenomenon. I object to the word virtue. Its an old name for the psychology of ethical development. Value theory. Value theory, or axiology, is a branch of ethics that deals with values. Freewill versus determinism, in ethics. If the universe is deterministic, and humans have no freewill, then humans have no ethical responsibility, and thus can do whatever they want, and thus ethics does not exist. Such a view does not accurately characterize our situation. We have some degree of freewill, responsibility and ethics. Irrealism, ethical. There are no moral truths or facts. Contrast with: Irrealism, ethical. Realism, ethical. There are moral truths and facts. Contrast with: Realism, ethical Noncognitivism. Ethics statements don't express facts. Types of: Emotivism is a type of non-cognitivism. Prescriptivism is a type of non-cognitivism. Emotivism. Emotivism is a type of ethical noncognitivism. Ethic statements experess emotions. Leads to moral relativism. Cognitivism. There are moral truths and facts. Objective. Apriori. Moral realism. Types of: Intuitionism is a type of ethical cognitivism. Descriptivists. Moral language describes states of affiars Prescriptivism. Moral language prescribes courses of actions. Relativism, ethical. Ethical relativism is the view that what is right and wrong is relative to the individual, society, situation, etc. Egoism, ethical. People only try to help themselves (untrue). Types of egoism. () Individual egoism. () Universal egoism. () Freud: psychological egoism. () Adam Smith: economic egoism. Altruism, ethical. People sometimes try to help others. Evolutionary basis for altruism. Types of altruism. () Marxian altruism: we work for good of group. ()Genetic altruism: we work for good of our genes pool. The view that people always try to do good and that no one knowingly does evil. That view is wrong. People sometimes knowingly do wrong. The view that people always try to help themselves. That view is wrong. Psychology and ethics. Moral psychology. (1) Emotion and ethics. (2) Reason and ethics. (3) Drive, will, desire, motivation and ethics. Crime and ethics. Criminology. Theories why people commit crimes. Theories of the causes of crime. Politics and ethics. Law and ethics. Values and axiology Ethical principles. Are there ethical principles that should guide our behavior? Means and ends. Are there things in themselves (states, objects) that we should pursue? Do things have intrinsic ethical value? Good life. Various notions and criteria of the good life for humans: Happiness. Well being. Pleasure, for example, the hedonism of the Epicureans. Excellence, perfectionism, for example, as described by Aristotle. Desire satisfaction. Health. Comparative ethics. The golden rule. Found in many cultures. Freewill and determinism. Ethical pluralism. Ethics is irreducibly plural. Ethics cannot be ranked. Contrast with ethical monism. Ethical monism. Ethics is one. Ethics can be reduced to one. Contrast with ethical pluralism. Environmental ethics. Ethics is not just about humans. Animals have rights. The environment is not merely for humans. Limits of ethics. Distinguishing the ethical from non-ethical realms. Some people argue that everything has an ethical dimension to it. Other people argue that somethings are non-ethical Human nature Is there a human nature? If one defines human nature as everyone acting that way all the time, then no. If one defines human nature as most humans acting that way most of the time, then maybe. Many people question wether humans are basically good or evil. That is a simplistic question. That is just one aspect of human nature. The point is that we want to know about ourselves and the world. The human mind, the human body, human behavior. Freewill vs. determinism. If one holds that everything is 100% deterministic then humans have no freewill nor obligation nor responsibility. Ethics is based on an assumption of some degree of freewill. Reason vs. emotion. Both reason and emotion are needed in ethical "minding". Nature vs. manmade. Realism, ethical. Ethical realism sees morality is objective (real). Reason rules. Contrast with: ethical idealism. Subjectivism, ethical. Objectivism, ethical Idealism, ethical Ethical anti-realism or idealism. Contrast with: ethical realism. Absolutism, ethical. What is it: Ethical absolutism is the view that ethics principles aplies in all cases, no exeptions. Absolutism is akin to universalism. Contrast with ethical relativism. Political absolutism is the view that a single, all powerful ruler should rule, and that view is bogus. Relativism, ethical. What is it: Ethical relativism is the view that ethics are relative to situation or culture. Contrast with ethical absolutism. Consequentialism. What is it: Consequentialism holds that an action is good depending on the consequences. Who held it: g.e. moore. r.m. hare. d. regan. d. parfit. J.S. Mill. Types of: Types of consequntialism include egoism and altruism. Is a type of: Consequentialism is a type of teleological ethics. Contrast with: non-consequentialism. Non-consequentialism. What is it: Nonconsequentialism is the view that whether an actions is ethical does not depend on its consequences. Contrast with: consequentialism. Teleological ethics. What is it: Teleological ethics are concerned with the end or outcome or consequences of an action. Types of: Types of teleological ethics include various theories of justice, utilitarianism. Deontological ethics What is it: Deontological ethics are concerned with concepts like intention; obligation and duty; and principles, rules and laws. Stoicism Stoicism says to endure life. Don't let things bother you. Epicureanism Epicureanism is a view that says to enjoy the finer things in life. Hedonism What is it: Hedonism is the fun ethic. Don't do anything that is not fun. It could be productive fun or non-productive fun. Hedonism is the view that one should enjoy life. One should have fun only. Contrast with: Work ethic. Arguments for it: its healthy, its fun. Work ethic What is it: A work ethic says one should work only. Do what is most productive. Don't do anything that is not productive. Arguments for it: you get a lot done. Contrast with: Hedonism. Rationalism. What is it: Rationalism in ethics is the view that we can figure out what is right and wrong. Types of: Kantianism. Social contract theories. Intuitionism What is it: Intuitionism is the view that we know what is good and bad by intution. There is real right and wrong and we know it by intuition. Who held it: G.E. Moore in Principia Ethica. Types of: Intuitionism of principles. Intuitionism of facts. Emotivism What is it: Emotivism is the view that when we talk about good and bad we are talking about our emotional feelings of whether we like or dislike something. Prescriptivism What is it: Prescriptivism is the view that when we say something is good or bad we are prescribing that we ought or ought not do it. Who held it: R. M. Hare argues for Universal Prescriptivism. Descriptivists What is it: Descriptivism says we can Eudoemonistic ethics Noneudoemonistic ethics. Evolutionary ethics How did human ethics evolve from animal behaviors? Animal emotions. Animal thinking. Animal behavior. Social behavior in animals. Comparative ethics Cross cultural studies Feminist ethics. Ethics is the domination of male power holders. Means and Ends. (1) Ends: Goals. Objectives. Mission. (2) Means. Strategies. Wants and Needs. Needs: must have. Wants: like to have. Moral psychology How does morality develop in humans? Ethical development of the individual. Kohlbergs stages of moral development. Moral epistemology How do we know and justify our moral beliefs? Moral reasoning What is moral argument and moral reasons? Decision theory. Game theory. Evolutionary ethics wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww Politics and law Legal systems as formalized, written ethical systems. Economics and business Altruism of socialism. Egoism of capitalism. Civil rights movements Women and children. Blacks, Indians, Asians, Hispanics, etc. wwwwwwwwww "Must" and "must not" are the realm of law "Should" and "should not" are the realm of ethics wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww Applied Ethics Political ethics - see Politics. Justice Equality Affirmative action. Discrimination. Liberty wwwwwwwwww Economic ethics - see Economics Development economics Poverty wwwwwwwwww Public vs. private ownership Public commons. No one owns it. Everyone owns it. Government ownership. Private property - see law, property wwwwwwwwww Environment - See Science, ecology wwwwwwwwww Peace and War - see Politics wwwwwwwwww Abortion Abortion and birth control should be freely available, at no cost 200 million pregnancies per year in world. World birth rate. 40% unplanned is 80million 22% of unplanned pregnancies aborted, means 20 million abortions worldwide per year wwwwwwwwww Euthanasia. wwwwwwwwww Bio-ethics. Genetic engineering Cloning Stem cell research. wwwwwwwwww Personal relationships wwwwwwwwww Animal ethics wwwwwwwwww Business ethics - see Business wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww HISTORY OF ETHICS Plato. Aristotle. Nichomean Ethics. Golden Mean. Hobbes. Egoism. British Moralists. Shaftesbury. Hutchinson. Butler. Hume. Idealism. Kant. Critique of Practical Reason. Categorical imperative. Universal ethics. Reasoned ethics. Jeremy Bentham. Utilitarianism. Hedonic calculus. JS Mill. Utilitarianism Sidgwick Kant. Categorical imperitive. GE Moore. Principia Ethica. Good as an unanalyzable, basic concept that we know through inutition. Naturalistic fallacy. Logical positivism and ethics. WD Ross. Prima facie duties. Some things are simply wrong. Some things are simply obligatory. RM Hare. Prescriptivism John Rawls. Theory of Justice. Contractarianism. Original position. Veil of ignorance. Feminist ethics. Environmental ethics. Pete Singer. Animal rights. wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww METAPHYSICS wwwwwwwwww Metaphysics (1) Philosophical use of the word "metaphysics". Academic philosophy uses of the word metaphysics. (2) Non-philosophical use of the word "metaphysics". New age. Astrology. Crystals. Tarot. What is the status of metaphysics today? The state of the art of metaphysics is basically philosophy of science. Descriptive metaphysics - Revisionary metaphysics. Aka, speculative metaphysics - Metaphysics by subject area. Epistemology and metaphysics. Epistemology can lead to metaphysics. Ethics and metaphysics Metaphysical status of values and norms. Language and metaphysics. Concepts vary with language. Language can create metaphysical systems. Psychology and metaphysics. Concepts vary from person to person Sociology and metaphysics. Concepts vary with culture. wwwwwwwwww Metaphysical stances, positions, or claims Claims that nothing exists Deny that anything exists Claims that things exist Claims that things are not what they seem. Claims that the world is an illusion Claims that our perceptions are inaccurate or incomplete Claims of other worlds Claims of before life and after life Claims of other levels of exitence wwwwwwwwww Realism There is a real, objective, non-mental world. Realims about math and numbers. Realism about values, ethical and aesthetic. Realism about universals. Antirealism. Irrealism. Idealism. (1) The world is mental, subjective. There is only mind, no matter. (Leibniz, Berkeley) (2) The view that there is a spiritual dimension to the world (bogus). (3) The world is an illuion. Antirealims about math and numbers. Antirealism about values, ethical and aesthetic. Antirealism about universals. Realism, types of. Ethical realism. Epistemological realism. Scientific realism. Irrealism, types of. Nominalism. Universals are not real. Idealism. Phenomenalism. What we perceive is not the way things really are. Conventionalism. Scientific theories are conventions. Ethics and irrealism. Epistemology and irrealism. Some idealists thing everything is god. Some idealists think everything is god's mind. Some idealists think everything is human's mind. Those are bogus views. wwwwwwwwww Materialism <What is it> Materialism is the view that the world is made of matter. However, Einstein showed that matter and energy are interchangeable. Materialist arguments are often found is the area of philosophy of science and philosophy of mind. There is no souls, no spirits, no ghosts. <Arguments for it> Science gives the most accurate description of reality. <Arguments against it>: ( ) Psychological arguments against materialism. We have thoughts. Are our thoughts matter? Is the mind matter? ( ) What about abstractions like numbers, symbols, etc? Are they material? ( ) Modern physics posits anti-matter, aka dark matter, and also dark energy. But that is actually an extension of the materialist argument. ( ) Religions argue that ghosts and other supernatural entities are real. Not a convincing argument. <Similar to>: materialism, naturalism, physicalism. Contrast with: idealism, irrealism, anti-realism. <Types of>: Eliminative materialism argues that non-material entities are not real. Reductive materialism argues that non-material entities reduce to material entities. Naturalism Naturalism is the view that reality can best be described by the natural sciences such as physics and biology. Naturalism can be extended to include psychology and the social sciences. <Similar to>: materialism, naturalism, physicalism. <Contrast with>: idealism, irrealism, anti-realism. Physicalism Physicalism as the view that physics explains everything. Everything is reducible to physics. (See also: Reduction and Emergence) <Arguments against it>: Some psychologists and sociologists argue that psychology and sociology are not reducible to physics. <Similar to>: materialism, naturalism, physicalism. <Contrast with>: idealism, irrealism, anti-realism. Scientism (1) Scientism is some times used in a negative sense. (2) One could argue that, in a good sense, scientism is the view that science gives the most accurate description of reality. Perhaps materialism, physicalism and naturalism should collectively be called "science-ism". ( ) There is also the more strongly held view that science is the only accurate method. The only thing worth doing. ( ) Science in contrast to other areas. ( ) Science versus philosophy. ( ) Science versus the arts. ( ) Science versus religion. Behaviorism Behaviorism is a type of materialist view. Behaviorism is the view that the way to study humans is to study their behavior. Behaviorism as a methodology in psychology. Phenomenalism Phenomenalism is the view that the way to study reality is to study the way reality appears to us phenomenalogically, that is, to our senses. Science See philosphy of science. Mechanism The view that the universe is a machine. The view that the mind is a machine. Monism. Monism is the view that there exists only one thing. Monists believe that all things are one. Buddhists believe that all things are one. Some monists believe everything is mind. Some monists believe everything is matter. <Contrast>: Pluralism, dualism and monism. Dualism. Dualism is the view that reality has a dual nature. For example, many dualists hold that all things are either mind or matter. <Contrast>: Pluralism, dualism and monism. Pluralism. Pluralism is the view that things are many. Reality is multi-faceted. Pluralism is a good view. <Contrast>: Pluralism, dualism and monism. Holism. Holism is the view that all things hang together. Everything is connected. For example, ecology, which views life as a web, is a holist view. If you are a pluralist, and you do not think everything is disconnected, then you are a holist. Realism There is nature only. <Contrast>: Realism, nominalism and conceptualism. Nominalism There is words only. <Contrast>: Realism, nominalism and conceptualism. Conceptualism There is concepts only. <Contrast>: Realism, nominalism and conceptualism. wwwwwwwwwww Representation and symbol systems. Abstractions. Logic. Godel's incompleteness theorem. (see logic) Math. Logicism. Intuitionism. Formalism. (see math) Language. Chomsky's universal innate grammar. (see language) wwwwwwwwww Sciences (see individual sciences) Physics (see physics) Chemistry. (see chemistry) Biology. (see biology) Psychology. (see psychology) Social sciences. (see sociology) Physics topics Gravity. Newton. Atomic theory. Rutherford. Wave particle duality of light. Relativity. Space and time. Quantum theory. Uncertainty principle. String theory. No evidence yet. Parralel universes. Serial universes. Big bang. End of universe. Dark matter and energy. Black holes. Time travel. Space and time. Relativity Theory. Einstein. Matter and energy are interchangeable. Matter (gravity) warps space. Time is a warp in gravity. Time slows as you approach the speed of light. Quantum Theory. Universe. Matter and energy Time and space Newtonian physics Relativity physics Quantum physics String theory Black holes. Wormholes. Time travel Multiverses. wwwwwwwwww Psychological topics (see psychology) Persons. Identity Self Minds. and the mental. Consciouness. Qualia. Freewill wwwwwwwwww Particulars What makes something seperate from another thing? Universals Aka, abstractions, categories. What is the metaphysical status of mere ideas? Abstract Exists only as a thought, not as a physical object. Concrete Actually exists as a physical object. wwwwwwwwww Illusions. Aka Perceptual illusions. Hallucinations. Dreams. Possible worlds. Saul Kripke. David Lewis. Hilary Putnam. Probability. Types of: (1) Objective theories of probability. (2) Subjective theories of probability. Complexity theory Chaos theory Absurdity. Randomness. Illogic. vs. Order. Ghosts, bogeymen, spirits, souls, spectres, spooks, God, heaven, hell, ectoplasms. Ghostbusters. 80% of people are confused, mistaken, self deceiving, self deluded. Ignorance is bliss vs. the truth will set you free. astrology tarot fortune tellers charlatans obviously wrong cases vs. cases where there is no empirical evidence. Insufficient evidence. vs. illogical cases. Faulty arguments. Positivism Positivism is an empistemological view that says that wwwwwwwwww Concepts Classification Collection Categories Are there any fundamental categories? (ex. physics posits matter, energy, time and space). Are categories human constructions? wwwwwwwwww Reality. World Universe. Everything that is. wwwwwwwwww Infinite vs. finite. Continuous vs. discrete. Analog vs. digital. wwwwwwwwww Potential Could be. Actual. Is. Existance. Being A thing either is or is not. Aka, substance. Nothingness. What counts as nothing? A vacuum? Non-existence? Aka, void. wwwwwwwwww Events and the Causes of them. Actions and the Reasons for them. wwwwwwwwww Life Death wwwwwwwwww Nature. Nature as benificient friend. Nature as foe to be conquered. Nature as stronger than us. Nature as weaker than us. (good view today when humans could destroy the world) Nature as different from us humans. Humans as a part of nature. (good view) wwwwwwwwww Nature or essence of a thing Essence. wwwwwwwwww soul spirit mojo absolute divine god santa claus wwwwwwwwww Appearance vs. reality. Illusion vs. reality. wwwwwwwwww Relation Things exist in relation to each other. wwwwwwwwww Objects Events Davidson developed a theory of objects and events. wwwwwwwwww Things Things exist. Substance Things are made some substance. Qualities Attributes Things have qualities and attributes. Properties wwwwwwwwww Subject vs. Object wwwwwwwwww Change wwwwwwwwww Time wwwwwwwwww Causation wwwwwwwwww Determinism and freewill Physics says everything is cause and effect, and thus deterministic. Determinism precludes freewill. Yet humans consider themselves as having some degree of freewill So that's a paradox. Determinism as cause and effect Indeterminism as randomness. Compatibilism (Hume's view) Freedom is compatible with determinism. Freedom is choice or "doing what you want". Nonfreedom or unfreedom is coercion or doing what you don't want. Determinism (see also ethics). Everything is cause and effect. There is no freedom. wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww Objectivity and subjectivity Metaphysical objectivity and subjectivity Epistemological objectivity and subjectivity wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww Order Disorder wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww Theory (thought) Practice (action) wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww History of metaphysics Plato Plato believed in a theory of Forms. Forms were timeless and perfect. Aristotle Aristotle was a more empiricist philosopher than Plato. Aristotle did have a theory of Categories. Kant Kant believed that humans were predisposed to think in terms of Categories due to the innate structure of our minds. Descartes - believed in a mechanistic universe. British idealism. Logic oriented approaches to metaphysics. Logical positivism. Early Wittgenstein in Tractatus. Wittgensteins view of metaphysics as meaningless baloney. Language oriented approaches to metaphysics. Later Wittgenstein in Philosophical Investigations. Science oriented approaches to metaphysics. Logical Empiricism. Logical positivism. Vienna Circle. Verificationist view of meaning. View of metaphysics as meaningless. Mind oriented approaches to metaphysics. Philosophy of mind. Cognitive science. Possible world adherents: David Lewis, Saul Kripke, Hilary Putnam. Postmodernism's view of metaphysics as baloney. wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww CONTINETNAL PHILOSOPHY wwwwwwwwww Terminology in continental philosophy Tags What does it mean. How did it develop. Who. When. Where. wwwwwwwwww Hermeneutics. Hermeneutic circle. Interpretation Understanding. Phenomenology. Bracketing. Describe the phenomenon. Existentialism. Bad faith Structuralism. Post-structuralism. Post modernism. Marxist theory Critical theory. Frankfurt school Deconstruction. Cultural studies. Annales school Queer theory Feminism Psychoanalysis Post-colonialism. More terms Ideology Hegemony. Reification wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww EASTERN PHILOSOPHY See the Religion section for Buddhism, Islam, Hindu, etc. Chinese philosophy Japanese philosophy Indian philosophy African philosophy. wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY (see history database) wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww Philosophical Schools Tags Who was representitive of the school Where When What were the major views of the school. Development of the views through the centuries. Methodology. wwwwwwwwww Ancient philosophical schools wwwwwwwwww Stoicism What: Stoicism defined as the view that a person should not let events bother or upset one. One should remain calm regardless of the situation. Stoicism is primarily a view in the area of ethics. Stoicism is an ethics of emotional response. <Arguments against> A psychological argument against stoicism is that some things are worth getting upset or angry about, for example, injustice. Stoicism represses the emotions. wwwwwwwwww Hedonism <What> Hedonism defined as the view that one should have fun. Hedonism defined as the view that one should pursue mindless, base pleasures. Hedonism is primarily a view in the area of ethics. wwwwwwwwww Epicureanism <What> Epicureanism defined as the view that one should pursue the finer things in life. <Arguments against> An argument against epicureanism is to ask who determines what are the finer things in life? wwwwwwwwww Modern schools of philosophy wwwwwwwwww Rationalism What: (See Epistemology) When: 1700's. Where: Europe. Who: Gottfried Leibniz. Baruch Spinoza. wwwwwwwwww Empiricism What: (See Epistemology) When: 1700's. Where: England. Who: John Locke. David Hume. wwwwwwwwww German idealism. What: When: Mid 1800's. Where: Germany. Who: Immanuel Kant. G Hegel. Fichte. wwwwwwwwww Phenomenology What: When: Germany. Where: Late 1800's. Early 1900s. Who: Husserl. Heidegger. wwwwwwwwww Existentialism What: A maxim of the existentialists is "Existence precedes essence". There is no meaning to life other than the meaning that people give to life. When: 1940's. 1950's. Where: France. Who: Jean Paul Sartre. Albert Camus. wwwwwwwwww Poststructuralism wwwwwwwwww Postmodernism (Baurillard, Lacan, Derrida) wwwwwwwwww Pragmatism What: (1) Pragmatism defined as the view that truth, or knowledge, or information is any idea that proves useful. Pragmatism is primarily an epistemological view. (2) A simplisitic view of pragmatism is the notion to do whatever is practical. That is primarily an view in the area of ethics. <Arguments against> An argument against pragmatism is that When: United States. Where: 1890 to 1920. Who: Charles Sanders Pierce. William James. John Dewey. wwwwwwwwww Logical Positivism What: Logical Positivism was a philosophical school that developed around the natural sciences. Logical positivism was a form of strong empiricism. When: 1920's and 1930's. Where: Austria. Who: Rudolph Carnap. Hempel. wwwwwwwwww Formal language analysis What: When: Where: Who: Early Wittgenstein. wwwwwwwwww Formal logic analysis What: When: Where: Who: Bertrand Russell. wwwwwwwwww Ordinary language analysis What: When: Where: Who: Later Wittgenstein. P F Strawson. wwwwwwwwww Feminism (DeBeauvoir, Friedan, See Feminist critique of philosophy (paragon) See Feminism (for beginners) wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww Racism Sexism Ageism Colonialism wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww Outline Philosophy by Paul Nervy Copyright (c) 2006 by Paul Nervy Visit www.paulnervy.com.