OUTLINE by Paul Nervy Copyright (c) 2006 by Paul Nervy Visit www.paulnervy.com. wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww PHYSICS Contents Introduction Atomic physics. Subatomic physics. Energy Matter Mechanics Thermodynamics (heat) Acoustics (sound) Optics (light) Electromagnetism Fluids Newtonian physics Relativity physics Quantum physics Current theories: Unified theory. Theory of Everything. String theory wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww INTRODUCTION Physics Physics is the study of the basic laws of nature. Sub-areas of physics Mechanics Thermodynamics Acoustics Optics Electromagnetism Fluids Atomic Physics Newtonian physics Relativity Quantum physics wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww ATOMIC PHYSICS Atoms Sub-atomic particles. Electrons. Charge = -1. Weight = negligible. Proton. Charge = +1. Weight = +1 Neutron. Charge = 0. Weight = +1. Protons Neutrons Electrons Orbitals Quarks. Charm quark. Strange quark. Up quark. Down quark. Left quark. Right quark. wwwwwwwwww Forces Electromagnetism. Strong force. Weak force. Gravity. Forces and their fields. Gravity is a force produces by gravitons. Electo-magnetism is produced by photons. The strong force is produced by gluons. The weak force is produced by W and Z particles. Unifications James Clerk Maxwell unfied Electricity and Magnetism by using 4 equations. wwwwwwwwww Subatomic Particles Electrons. Protons. Neutrons. Quarks. Gluons. Gluons hold quarks together. Hadrons. Hadrons is a name for protons and neutrons. Fermions. Fermions is a name for Quarks and leptons. Bosons. Bosons include photons and gluons. Bosons carry forces. Leptons. Leptons create electrons and neutrinos. Neutrinos. Neutrinos are small. Neutrinos go right through humans. Photons. Photons carry light energy. Gravitons. Gravitons carry gravity. Pions Muons. Mesons Tachyons. Rutherford's model of atom. Bohr's model of atom. Standard Model Six quarks. Six leptons Six bosons. Five found already. Sixth, Higgs boson, is theoretical. Standard Model can account for three of the four forces. It accounts for electromagnetism, strong force and weak force. Gravity is not accounted for by the Standard Model. Atomic structure What scientific evidence is there of elements? Elements cannot be further decomposed. What theoretical agrument is there for the following? What physical evidence is there of the following? Atoms Protons? Neutrons? Electrons? Things have electric charges. Electricity. Quarks? Strings? wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww MATTER Density Mass Weight Solids Liquids Gases wwwwwwww Solids Crystals. Ionic bonds. Metals. Ceramics. Glass. Is actually a liquid? Freezing point. Liquid to solid. Melting point. Solid to liquid. wwwwwwww Liquids Boiling point. Liquid to gas. Condensation point. Gas to liquid. Evaporation. Liquid to gas. Sublimation. Solid directly to gas. Distillation. wwwwwwww Gases Boyles law. Brownian movement Volume varies with temperature. Pressure varies with temperature. PV=nrt wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww ENERGY Potential energy Kinetic energy Centripetal force Centrifugal force Heat energy Sound energy Light energy. Electrical energy Chemical energy wwwwwwww Waves Some forms of energy travels in waves. Sound waves. Requires a medium. Light waves. Can travel in a vacuum. Frequency is measured in hertz. One hertz equals one cycle per second. Resonance. Waves combine. Interference. Waves cancel. Impedance. Doppler shift Moving toward you, the Doppler shift increases pitch or frequency. Does the Doppler shift light from red to orange? Moving away from you, the Doppler shift decreases pitch or frequency. Does the Doppler shift light from orange to red? wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww THERMODYNAMICS Heat Heat is a form of energy. Heat is all about vibrating atoms. Heat moves from areas of hotter to colder. Temperature Temperature is a measure of heat. The hottest to the coldest. The heat of the sun. The heat of fusion reactions is what? Iron melts at what temperature? Wood burns at kindling point of x Fahrenheit. Human body temperature 98.6 Fahrenheit. Water freezes at 32 Fahrenheit or 0 Celsius. Dry ice. Liquid carbon dioxide. Liquid nitrogen. Absolute zero. Temperature scales. Kelvin scale. 0 degrees equals absolute zero. Fahrenheit scale. 32 degrees equals freezing - melting point of water. Celsius. 0 degrees equals freezing - melting point of water. Speed of transfer of heat, from hot to cold, out of any material, to any environment. Ex, metal in water, etc. Specific heat. Thermal expansion. Objects expand when they are heated. Laws of Thermodynamics Matter and energy are conserved. Entropy increases. wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww SOUND aka Acoustics Sound waves Amplitude. Loudness. Measured in decibels. Frequency. Pitch. Cycles per second. Measured in hertz. Shape. Sine. Triangular or saw. Square. Sound waves in air. Sound waves in water. Sound waves in water move slower and travels less far than in air. Sound waves in outer space. In outer space there is no air, no medium for propagation of sound, and thus no sound. wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww OPTICS wwwwwwww Light wwwwwwww Electromagnetic spectrum Radio waves. Microwaves Infra-red rays. Heat. Visible light spectrum. ROYGBIV. Ultra-violet light. Gamma rays X rays wwwwwwww Wave theory of light. Light is a continuous wave. Evidence: Quantum theory of light Light is a discrete packet or quanta. Evidence: wwwwwwww Visible light. A prism breaks up visible light (white light) into the spectrum of colors. A rainbow is when the clouds act as a prism to create a spectrum. wwwwwwww Lenses. Convex. Concave. wwwwwwww Mirrors. Flat. Convex. Concave. wwwwwwww Color Primary colors. Secondary colors. Three axis of color chart: Hue. Chroma. Value. White equals all colors. White objects reflect the full spectrum of visible light. Black equals no colors. Black object absorb the full spectrum of visible light. Color mixing. Mixing colored lights. Add all visible light colors and get white. Mixing colored pigments. Add all color pigments and get brown? wwwwwwww Brightness of light is measured in units called lumens. A laser is a high energy, sharply focused light. Applications of optics. Microscopes. Telescopes. Binoculars. Eyeglasses. Magnifying glasses. The human eye. Speedp of light. Is a constant. Even in relativity. Polarized light. Diffraction wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww MECHANICS wwwwwwwwww Force = mass x acceleration. F=ma Units of measures of force include: wwwwwwwwww Work = force x time W = FT Units of measure of work include joules. wwwwwwwwww Power = Work x time P = WT (or F squared x time?) Units of measure of power include watts and horsepower. wwwwwwwwww Simple machines. Plane. Lever. Pulley. Wheel. Gears. Screw Work = mass x distance x time? Acceleration. Constant acceleration = change is speed / change in time. Energy is the capacity to do work. Power is the rate work is done. Work Force Kinetic energy Potential energy Centripetal force Centrifugal force Newton's Three laws of motion 1. Objects at rest stay at rest. 2. F=ma 3. Equal and opposite forces when bodies collide. Motion. Movement. Speed and velocity are often used synonymously. Velocity is measured in meters per second Acceleration is measured in meters per second squared ? Inertia. Motionless objects tend to stay motionless, even without friction. Momentum. Moving objects tend to stay moving, even with friction. Friction. Gravity. Earth's gravity. Acceleration due to gravity. Falling bodies. Mass Weight. Ballistics Throwing a ball. Shooting a cannon. Initial force. Gravity acts. Air friction acts. The shape of the curve is a parabola (?) Throwing a ball from a building. Rotational motion - torque. Planetary motion Orbits The shape of the path is an ellipse. one dimensional kinematics velocity, acceleration two dimensional kinematics vectors impulse momentum wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww Fluids. wwwwwwwwww Fluid statics. Hydrostatics. Example, how big a dam holds how big a body of water? Example, bridges. Aerostatics. ? wwwwwwwwww Fluid dynamics. Hydrodynamics. If a dam breaks, how much will be the force of water? Study of fluids Pressure of fluids. Ex., water pressure. Pressure of moving fluids in a pipe or a culvert. Pressure of standing fluids. On walls of container, like on a dam or a water tower. wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww Aerodynamics. Drag. Lift. Thrust. Buoyancy. Bernoulli's principle wwwwwwwwww Air pressure. Atmospheric pressure. Atmospheric pressure decreases as one goes up. Water pressure. Ocean pressure. Ocean pressure increases as one descends. wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww ELECTRICITY The flow of electricity in a wire is often compared to the flow of water in a pipe. The rate of flow or speed of current is measured in amps. The pressure or force is measured in volts. Total amount of flow is measured in watts. wwwwwwwwww Volt. Voltage. A measure of electric potential and electromotive force. The difference in potential that causes a current of one amp to flow through a resistance of one ohm. Voltage measured in ? wwwwwwwwww Resistance. Impedes the flow of electricity Resistance is measured in units called ohms. wwwwwwwwww Amps. Amperage. Amps are a measure of current. Current is the flow of electricity. 1 ampere = 1 coulomb per second. wwwwwwwwww Watts. Wattage. Watts are a unit of power. A watt equals one joule per second. wwwwwwwwww Joule A joule is a unit of electrical energy. A joule is the work done when a current of 1 amp passes through a resistance of 1 ohm in 1 second. Joule = volts x time (just like work = force x time) wwwwwwwwww Coulomb. A unit of electric charge of 6x10 to the 19th power of electrons. wwwwwwwwww Electric generators, transformers and motors. Alternating current. Direct current. Conductors. Metals. Insulators and resistors. Rubber. Semiconductors Superconductors Transistors are semiconductors. Coulomb's law. Ohm's law. Lightning is a discharge of static electricity built up in clouds. The static spark when you touch a doorknob is small lightning. Music speakers are called amps, short for amplifier. Light bulbs are measured in watts. Electrical outlets (ac/dc) are measured in volts. wwwwwwwwww MAGNETISM Magnets have poles. Two poles. Poles of magnet Magnetic fields The earth is a magnet. Magnetite is a naturally occurring magnetic stone. Metals make good magnets. A compass is a magnet. wwwwwwwwww ELECTROMAGNETISM Electromagnets Faraday's laws Maxwell equations. wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww CHEMICAL ENERGY Heat produced by a chemical reaction. Work done by the heat. wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww NUCLEAR PHYSICS Radioactivity. What causes it? Naturally produced radioactive elements. Natural uranium. Plutonium. Artificially produced radioactive elements. Half life. Xrays. Madam curie. Roentgen. Fission. Splitting the atom to release energy. The atom bomb. Manhattan project. Oppenheimer. Fission reactors. Hanford. Three Mile Island. Chernobyl. Fusion. Fusing atoms together. The Hydrogen bomb. Uses an atom bomb as a detonator. Teller. Fusion reactors. Tokamak. Plasma. Radio isotope dating. Cold fusion hoax wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww NEWTONIAN PHYSICS Newtonian physics are human scale physics. Newtonian physics assumes absolute space and absolute time. What is the experimental evidence to confirm Newtonian physics? What is the experimental evidence to confirm the breakdown of Newtonian physics. Light in Newtonian physics. Space in Newtonian physics. Time in Newtonian physics. Motion in Newtonian physics. Gravity in Newtonian physics. Gravity is a measure of the acceleration due to the force that one body attracts another based on the mass of both bodies. wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww QUANTUM PHYSICS Quantum physics deals with the very small, sub-atomic level. Heisenberg uncertainty principle Observer bias. Schroedinger equation. Schroedinger's cat. QED Quantum Electrodynamics Richard Feynman. Quantum physics Light in quantum physics. Gravity in quantum physics. Space in quantum physics. Time in quantum physics. Motion in quantum physics. In quantum physics you cannot know the exact location and exact velocity of subatomic particles. Only probablistic knowledge is possible. What is the experimental evidence to confirm quantum physics? Action at a distance. Quantum entanglement. There can be a quantum connection between particles far apart. Quantum interference and decoherence. Quantum theory. Observer effect. Observing it changes it. Light is a wave and light is a particle (quanta). wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww RELATIVITY PHYSICS Einstein Special relativity. Empirical proof. General relativity. Empirical proof. Space Time Twins thought experiment. E=mc squared Gravity: a warp of space-time continuum Speed of light: is constant Time travel: is it possible? Proof for Einstein's theories Light bends because space is warped. Space is relative. Space (distance) contracts and expands. Space is not a universal constant. Time is relative. Time speeds up and slows down. Time is not a universal constant. The speed of light is a universal constant. Relativity physics. Light in relativity physics. Gravity in relativity physics. Space in relativity physics. Time in relativity physics. Motion in relativity physics. There is only spacetime. Time slices. STR - constant velocity. GTR - accelerated motion E=mc^2 Atom bomb. Analogies Doppler effect. Sound of train whistle changes as train approaches and then moves away. Elevator lets you feel acceleration not velocity. Acceleration seems like gravity. Twin paradox. What is the experimental evidence to confirm relativity physics? Atomic clocks flown on planes around the globe. 1920 astronomical observations. Relativity Space and time are relative to each other? Time varies with space. Space varies with time. The speed of light is constant. Time and space are not relative to each other. Time is relative to the speed of light. Space is relative to the speed of light. wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww Current theories wwwwwwwwww Unified theory. Unified theory is what Einstein was working on in his later life. wwwwwwwwww Theory of Everything. (TOE) Four forces: Electromagnetism. Gravity. Strong force. Weak force. Maxwell combined electricity and magnetism Weinberg combine which two? Strong and weak? What remains to be combined? wwwwwwwwww String theory Ed Witten Brian Greene String theory Light in string theory. Gravity in string theory. Space in string theory. Time in string theory. Motion in string theory. String theory is meant to combine relativity theory and quantum theory. Strings are smaller than quarks. Strings require more than four dimensions of Newtonian space and time. Calabi-Yau shapes Closed strings Open strings M theory. Says that 11 dimensions describe the universe. Branes or membranes can be bigger than strings and thus easier to study. Braneworld scenario. We live in a three dimensional brane. Cyclic braneworld scenario. When branes collide they produce a big bang. What is the experimental evidence to confirm relativity theory? There is none yet. wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww Physics experiments to do at home Light Prism breaks up visible light into spectrum. Infrared light. Get infrared goggles. Ultraviolet light. Get some UV film for a camera. Gamma rays. X rays. Get an xray. Mirrors. Lenses. Magnifying glass. Telescope. Microscope. Electromagnetism. Build an electromagnet. Build a hand crank electric generator. Build an electric motor. AC and DC. Build a battery. Hook it all together. Magnets. Use iron fillings to see magnetic fields. Use a compass. Force Motion Speed. Velocity. Acceleration. Floor it. Slam on the brakes. Work. Horsepower. Gravity. Stand on a scale in an elevator. Going down you weigh less. Going up you weigh more. wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww HISTORY OF PHYSICS (see history database) wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww Sound cannot travel in a vacuum. Light can travel in a vacuum. Heat cannot travel in a vacuum. Heat Coldest temps on earth. Coldest temps in space. Hottest temps on earth. Hottest temps in space. Sounds above human hearing: bat sonar. Sounds below human hearing: elephant rumblings. Einstein. E=mc2. Energy and matter are equivalent. The energy released from matter when it is converted to energy is enormous. How could you accelerate matter to the speed of light squared if nothing can go faster than the speed of light? Hydrogen bomb uses an atomic bomb as detonator. Atom smasher. Atomic accelerator. Old view Everything that exists is either matter or energy. The total amount of matter and energy in the universe is constant. New view Three quarters of universe is dark energy. One quarter of universe is dark matter. A minuscule of the universe is matter and energy. What happens when matter and dark matter collide? What happens when energy and dark energy collide? Cosmology Big Bang Inflationary theory Black holes Energy Matter Dark energy Dark matter Higgs fields. Higgs particles. How does one link relativity, quantum and newtonian physics? Newton Maxwell Mach Einstein Bohr, Niels. Princliple of complementarity. Everything is a wave and a particle. Heisenburg. Uncertainty principle 1930's. Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (EPR). Argues against Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle. 1960's. John Bell. Experimental proof for quantum theory. John Wheeler. Delayed choice experiment. Ed Witten. United five types of string theory into M theory. Alan Guth. Inflationary cosmology. Lee Smolin Roger Penrose String theory v. loop quantum gravity. Up and down quark produce the electron and electron-neutrino. Charm and strange quark produce the muon and muon neutrino. Top and bottom quark produce the tau and tau neutrino. Serial universes. Parallel universes. Wormholes through space and time. Instantaneous space travel. Time travel to future or past. Most laws of physics are symetrical. Time is not symetrical. Time does not flow backwards. Time and the problem of the "now". Entropy. Laws of thermodynamics. 1. Conservation of energy. 2. The universe faces increasing entropy (disorder). COBE. Cosmic Background Explorer. WMAP. Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. More sensitive than COBE. Dark matter. WIMPS. Not detectable. MACHOS. Black holes and such. Dark energy. Relativity theory. Quantum theory. Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle. Shrodinger's cat. Black holes. Can we create black holes? Time travel. Is time travel possible? Teleportation. Is teleportation possible? Big bang. Singularity. End of universe. The universe is currently expanding. Parallel universes. Serial universes. Nested universes. Is an atom a universe in itself? Is the universe an atom in a bigger universe? Universe in a garage. Can we create universes? String theory. Developed out of quantum theory. Superstring theory. M theory. Branes. Relativity theory. STR GTR E=Mc^2 Loop quantum gravity. Developed out of relativity theory. Cosmic Background Microwave Radiation. Discovered by A. Penzias and R Wilson in 1964. Entropy. Symmetry. Super symmetry. Time Space. Light. Wave - particle duality. Photons. Motion Nothingness. Vacuum.